SNC2D1 Grade 10 Science Chemistry Test

Chemistry Study Notes for grade 10 Academic Science unit test study notes SNC2D1 SNC2D1

Pure Substances and Mixtures

Pure substance: any matter made up of one type of element/atom

Element/compounds: symbols, cannot break down/formulas broken down from molecules

Mixture: any matter that is made up of more than one type of atom

Homogenous/Heterogeneous: 1 part/many parts

Properties

Physical:

Change of state

Change in shape

Reversible

Dissolving

Chemical:

Change of colour

Release of gas

Hard to reverse

Release of heat

Precipitate

Ions:

-Elements which have gained or lost electrons to make their outer orbital’s filled

-Net charge of 0, indicated by a + or -, depending on amount of extra electron

-CATION = +

-ANION = –

-Based on their column on the periodic table and the amount of valence electrons, they will make bonds with each other… Add up to 8

-Electrons move from one atom to another to make it full

-Electrolytes: a compound that separates into ions when dissolved in water, producing a solution that conducts electricity

Ionic Compounds Naming

-metal followed by the nonmetals +ide.

-Transitional metals need (XX) to indicate its charge

-Criss Cross method for formulas

Polyatomic compounds

-an ion made up of more than one atoms that acts as a single particle

Naming/formula

-write the name of the cation, then the ide after the anion

-criss cross to determine the charges

Molecular compounds/covalent compounds

-compounds that bond together by sharing electrons not by giving them away

-some contain diatomic particles that always come in a pair of two

-HOFBrINCl

-Naming uses a set of some common molecular names

-Second term/first that is more than 1 will use prefix system

-no charges

Reactants and product

-Chemical reactants come together and react to form a product

Decomposition

-single compound breaks down into other elements/compounds

AB -> A +B

 

Synthesis

-Opposite to decomp

A+B -> AB

Single Displacement

-one element replaces another in a compound, leaving an element alone

A+BC -> AC+B

Double Displacement

-elements in two compounds switch places with others in the formula

AB+CD -> AD+CB

-Combustion

-rapid reaction with oxygen to create oxides

-fuel + oxygen -> oxides + energy

Hydrocarbons

-hydrocarbons + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water

Incomplete combustion

-releases CO, CO2, H2O, and C

-happens when there aren’t enough oxygen

Oxidization

-metals reaction with oxides in a slow process to produce an oxide on a surface

Law of conservation of mass

-the mass of the reactant will equal the mass of the product

-means that we have to balance equations to have them equal and work with the law

-using coefficients and multipliers

Word equations

-use -> to separate reactant and product

-use naming from before

Skeleton equations

-equations that look at a reaction simply based on what they are… un edited

Balanced equations

-equations that look at reactions with edited, balancing them on both sides by adding coefficients

Count atoms

-Look at subscript and multiply obeying with brackets and coefficients

Corrosion

-Bad: car rusting

-Good: ?? someone add that

-Preventing corrosion: forgot what odlum said… ADD!

Acids:

-Acids: reacts with metals, carbonates

-Neutralizes bases and vice versa

-Conducts electricity because it has ions in it

-reacts with metals to create H2

-reacts with carbonates to create CO2

-reacts with water to create hydrogen

-all acids have “hydro” in front

-hydrofluric, hydrochloric…

-used to be preservatives and add to food for tastes

-Oxyacids derive from polyatomic ions containing oxygen and hydrogen.

-basically (add onto it) a –ate polyatomic ion that has H2 in it to be an acid

-Acetic, Nitric, Carbonic

-turns blue litmus paper pink and keeps pink litmus paper pink

Bases:

-When dissolved in water, it gives off a OH ion

-turns red litmus paper to blue and keeps blue litmus paper blue

-neutralizes acids

-used as cleaners, neutralize acids, clean drains

Sodium Hydroxide, calcium hydroxide etc.

pH

-the level of how acetic or basic a solution is

-“power of hydrogen”

-acids: H+

-bases: OH-

-Range from 0-7-14

-7 is water, neutral

-1 is acetic

-14 is basic

-6-7 and 7-8 are considered slightly acetic or basic

Logarithms

-the Log10 of a # is the power that 10 must be taken to equal to that number

pH=-log10[H+]

pH: negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration

-Adding of base or acid can help adjust the pH

-when acids and bases are mixed, the resultant solution is between that of the acid and base

-each whole integer pH scale is multiplied by 10X

Neutralization Reaction

-Acids + baes -> a salt+water

-hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide -> salt + water

-used to reduce acids in soil to prevent them from being in the lake

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