SNC2D1 Grade 10 Science Biology Test

Biology Notes for academic course biology tisues unit test SNC2D1 SNC2D1

Diffusion: the movement of fluids from an area of high concentration to a lower concentration

Cell theory:

-All living things are made up of one or more cells and their product

-Cells is the simplest unit that can carry out all processes

-All cells come from preexisting cells

Prokaryote: no nucleus or other membrane: bound organelles (E-Coli)

Eukaryote: has a nucleus and other organelles, each surrounded by a thin membrane (Animals/human if multicell, amoeba if single cell)


Cytoplasm: suspends organelles in cells

-Water, Jelly Like

Endoplasmic Reticulum: transports materials around the cell

-3D network of packets extending throughout the cell

Cell wall: helps the plant take its shape

-Sturdy layer containing pores

Nucleus: holding genetic information and performing mitosis

-Spherical structure

Mitochondria: converts glucose into energy through cellular respiration with oxygen

-oval jelly like structure

Cell Membrane: supports cell and allows for diffusion within the cell

-thin layer around the cell

Chloroplast: absorbs light and converts it into energy and stores it there

-looks like bricks, green, clots inside

Golgi Bodies: Collect and remove materials from the cell. Expels mucus

  • Strips and strands, found in stomach

Vacuoles: isolating and removing waste in cell and maintaining pressure

-oval structure inside the cell with a thin lining

Mitosis: IPMAT

Interphase: when the cell grows to the largest maturity. DNA long and stranded

Prophase: double stranded chromosome, nuclear membrane splits apart. DNA shortened and thickened

Metaphse: double stranded chromosomes line up in the center. Held together with spindle fibres

Anaphase: the double stranded chromosomes are split evenly in half.

Telophase: new nuclear wall forms to divide the two sets of identical chromosomes

Cytokinesis: the process of which the cell organelles, cytoplasm, and membrane into two separate cells. Plant cells create a wall to divide the cells into 2

Chromatid: 2 identical strands of DNA that makes up chromosomes

Centromere: structure that holds the chromatis together as chromosomes

Chromosomes: structure containing the DNA in a cell

Importance of cell division: as the cell grows bigger, the ratio of surface area and volume decreases, meaning the cell will not be able to have enough room to allow nutrients go to in to support the cell’s organelles and functions


Group of cells that divide rapidly ignoring the body’s chemical reactions that tell the cell not to divide so often

Caused by mutation in DNA of the cell genetics

-Carcinogens: any substance that can increase the chances of cancer

-Heredity: genetic causes for individuals that are more pre disposed to develop cancers such as colon and breast cancer

Cells that divide quickly causing a tumor that is benign will be not harmful

Cells that divide quickly but are harmful are called malignant cells – cancer tumors

Cancer that spreads are called a metastasis cancer

Detection of cancer include:

-Screening: XRay, MRI, cat scan

-Testing; pap test, psa test, breast self exam


-Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, surgery to remove the tumor

Stem Cells

-Cells that are able to divide into any type of cell by changing or turning on some of the genes in the DNA to allow some functions

Umbilical cord is a good source of stem cells if kept immediately after birth

Embryonic tissue stem cells are used to create blood only

Cellular Differentiation: directed by DNA to change the way they behave as they get older

Embryonic cells can divide into any other cell while a tissue stem cell can only divide into a certain type of cell

Specialized cells: cells that are specialized at performing a certain task but cannot survive without support of other cells

Tissue: group of specialized cell that make up a function

Organ: group of specialized tissues

Organ systems: group of organs

-obtain oxygen

-get nutrients

-reduce waste


-repair, grow, change

4 main types of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

Epithelial: skin, lining of digestive systen

-thin packed cells covering surfaces

-protect dehydration

Connective: bone, tendons, blood

-Various cells and fibers held together by a single organ

-support and insulation

Muscle: muscles, heart, digestive system muscles

-long cells that expand or contract on demand


Nervous: brain, nervous system

-long thin cells that convey electrical currents to control the body

-sensory, communication, and coordination

Digestive System: takes, digests, and reduce food by creating waste

Digestive Tract and accessory organs

Digestive Tract: esophagus, mouth, s and l intestines, rectum, anus

-covered in epithelial tissue so its smooth;

-Goblet cells produce mucus to protect from acids

-Muscle, nerve tissues

Mouth- provides first mechanical breakdown of food

-saliva breakdown of food by turning starch into sugar

Esophagus: muscular tube that moves food through the tube controlled by nerves


Stomach: holds, churns food lined with cells that produces digestive enzymes and acids

-Smooth muscles contract to mix content

Small intestine: most digestion here done with smooth muscles and brings nutrients into blood vessels; water absorbs also occurs.

Big intestine: larger in diameter; mainly absorbs water

Rectum: stores wastes until its time to let it go to the anus to be released

Accessory organs: Liver, pancreas, gall bladder

Liver: produces enzymes for digestion

-gall bladder: produces bile to digest fat

Pancreas: produces insulin to control blood sugar levels

Circulatory System

Blood, Heart, blood vessels

  1. Moves nutrients from digestive system through out body
  2. Connects to lung to transport oxygen throughout body
  3. Carries wastes out of body through kidney
  4. Carries CO2 into lungs
  5. Regulates body temperature
  6. Movement of white blood cells


-Red Blood Cells (Erythrocyte)

-Most of all blood in body (50%) w/ no nuclei

-Contains hemoglobin (protein) that transports oxygen throughout body created in bone marrow

-White Blood Cell (Leukocytes)

-Less than 1% of blood

-Fights infections by search and destroy methods

-Destroys by having it engulfed or assigns antibodies to attack


-Keeps blood from clotting (less than 1%)

-becomes ruptured to release proteins to create a web to heal


-50% of blood; proteins rich fluid that allows carrying of blood cells


-Cardiac Muscle Tissue

-Muscle only in heart; all tissues move at the same time

-Nerve Tissue

-Controls frequency of heartbeat

-Connective Tissue

-To protect heart from friction, collision etc. and made of epithelial cells

Beating of the heart depends on stress, temperature, activity, and health.

Blood Vessels:


-carries blood away from heart

-under high pressure

-large thick walls


-carry blood to heart

-low pressure

-thin walls

-have valves to suspend blood

-outer on body


-tiny and thin, cell in diameter

-o2 and nutrients come in and out capillaries

Circulatory Diseases

Coronary Artery Disease

-plaque gets deposited into vessel and blocks the flow of blood

-Factors: heredity, lifestyle

-Symptoms: dizziness, tiredness

-diagnosed with angiogram

Heart Attack

-arteries completely blocked

-heart receives no oxygen and begins to die

-Symptoms: chest, upper body, abdominal pain, anxiety, nausea, sweating, dizziness, shortness of breath, tiredness.

Respiratory System

Gas Exchange

-Alveoli intakes high concentration of O2 and diffuses them into blood through capillaries

-Takes carbon dioxide out

Fish Respiration

-Water passes through gills which turn into usable oxygen


-Diaphragm expands volume in lung to decrease pressure so air will come in to inhale

-Diaphragm closes to decrease volume in lung to exhale the air

Structural Features

-Nose/Mouth, Trachea, branchi, Lung

-Cilia on epithelial tissue brings the mucus upwards



-bacterial disease that infects lung’s operations and can also move to other places

-Difficult to detect through xray because of confusion with pneumonia and stomach and lung secretions are often taken to confirm


-Tumor in lung blocking airflow

-Carcinogen as major cause


-2003 china outbreak with flu like symptom disease

Muculoskeletal system

-Support body

-provide movement

-provide protection



-hard dense matrix of Ca, P, and collagen protein

-Canals inside make way for passage of blood and nerves

-Not living


-bonds bone to bone

-Soft elastic tissue made of collagen


-Dense connective lubrication tissue

-Disks ins pine

-Specialized cell in a matrix of collagens


-Bundle of long cells of muscle fiber protein that causes the tissues to contract

Skeletal: voluntary muscle (attach to bones)

Smooth: involuntary muscle

Cardiac: heart muscle

Tendons: connect muscle to bone

-less elastic

-only contracts and relaxes



-Loss of bone CA, making it fragile

-Accidents and X-Ray diagnosis


Most are vertebrates but some are not and have exoskeletons

Nervous system

A dedicated network that allows messages to pass through and enable interactions

Central nervous system: nerve brain and spinal cord (core nervous system)

Peripheral Nervous System: nerves that carry the signal throughout the body

-It sends signal about the inside and outside of body

-It tells the body from the brain about what to do

Neurons conduct signal with electric pulses

Sensory Receptors: receive signals from the outside and tells peripheral system

Stimuli Receptors: Types of signals that sensory receptors will receive


-Multiple Sclerosis

-Bacteria destroying the mylin in the nerve tissue when the bacteria damages the immune system

-Physical trama shocks and destroys many of the nerve cells

Plant notes aren’t added