SNC2D Grade 10 Science Exam

includes a more full version of bio notes with plant stuff

also has climate change notes

Science Exam Study Notes


Plant and Animal Cells

Prokaryotes: No nucleus or other membrane

Eukaryotes: has a nucleus and other organelles

Plant cells have cell wall and chloroplast while animals cells don’t


Cytoplasm: suspends organelles in cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum: transports materials throughout the cell

Nucleus: stores genetic data and performing mitosis

Mitochondria: converts glucose with oxygen to make energy for cell

Cell membrane: support cell and allow diffusion

Chloroplast: absorbs light and converts it to energy

Golgi Bodies: collects and removes materials from cell

Vacuoles: isolating and removing waste in cell and maintaining pressure

Mitosis: IPMAT

Chromatid: 2 identical strands of DNA that make up the chromosome

Centromere: structure that holds the chromatid together as chromosomes

Importance of cell division, as the cell gets bigger, the ratio of surface area and volume decreases, meaning the cell will not be able to have enough space to absorb all the nutrients to go into and support the cell’s organelles and functions

Cancer: caused by mutation in cells

Carcinogens: factors that increase the risk of cancer

Benign: tumor that is not harmful

Malignant: tumor that is harmful

Ways of detecting: pap, psa, breast self exam

Treatment: Chemo, Radio, surgery

Stem Cells: Cells that are able to divide into any type of cell by turning on some of the DNA to allow some functions

Umbilical cord excellent source for stem cells that can only make blood (specialized stem cells)

cells>tissues>organs>organ systems

Organ: obtain O2, get nutrients, make waste, adapt, repair, grow, change


Epithelial: skin, lining of digestive system

-thinly packed cells

Connective: bone, tendons, blood

-various cells and fibres held together by a single organ

Muscle: muscles, heart, digestive muscles

-expand and contract on demand to create movement

Nervous: brain, nervous system

-long thing cells that convey electric currents to control body

Digestive System

Digestive Tract: mouth>esophagus>S intestines>L intestines>rectum>anus

-covered in epithelial tissues for smoothness

Goblet cells: produce mucus to protect from acids

Mouth: breaks down food

Esophagus: travels down through smooth muscles: peristalsis

Stomach: churns food with enzymes to digest food

Small intestine: smooth muscles bring nutrients into blood vessels

Big Intestine: food left to dry

Liver: produces enzymes for digestion

-Gall bladder: produces bile to kill fat

Pancreas: produces insulin to control blood sugars

Circulatory System

Blood, Heart, Blood vessels

-move nutrients, move oxygen, carry waste, temperature, wbc movement


RBC: Erythrocytes: 50% of blood

-contains hemoglobin that transports oxygen throughout body. from marrow

WBC: less than 1%, fights infections by S&D methods

-Destroys or asks antibodies to attack them

Platelets: keeps blood from clotting. Ruptures to heal

Plasma: 50% of blood, protein rich fluid to carry cells.

Heart: responsible for pumping blood around body

Cardiac Muscle: only in heart that moves at the same time

Nerve Tissue: controls beating frequency

Connective Tissue: protect heart from friction, collision. made of epithelial tissue

Blood Vessels

Arteries: carries blood under high pressure with thick walls

Veins: carries blood under low pressure in thin walls. Valves are used to suspend blood

Capillaries: cell size width, carries oxygen and diffusion at this level


Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Attack

Respiratory System

Gas Exchange: gas is transferred through diffusion into blood through capillaries.

Diseases: Tuberculosis: bacteria infection

-Cancer: tumor in lung blocking air flow

Musculoskeletal System: supports body and movement, protection

Bone: hard dense matrix of Ca, P, and collagen protein. Marrow inside to make blood

Ligament: bonds bone to bone. Soft elastic collagen

Cartilage: provides lubrication between disks

Muscle: cells contract in long fibers to provide movement.

-Skeletal muscle: voluntary movement

-smooth muscle: involuntary movement

Tendons; bone to muscle, less elastic.

Diseases: Osteoprorosis: loss of Ca in bone, making fragile


Nerve System

Nerve cells

Dedicated network to allow messages to pass through and enable interactions

Central nervous system: nerve, brain, spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous SystemL nerves that carry the signal throughout the body

Neurons: cells which conduct messages using electric currents

Disease: Multiple Sclerosis: mylin sheath falling off

-Physical trama


-Green ourside

-Exchanges gases

-Require internal nutrient transportation

Heirarchy: root and shoot system

Dermal Tissue: outer surfaces

Vascule tissue: transportation

Ground tissue: all others

Shoot system: conducts photosynthesis and produces flowers

Root System: segment that primarily grows underground

Light energy+CO2+water -> glucose+oxygen through chlorophyll

Energy is stored as starch, less soluable in water. It is the converted back to glucose for consumption

Leaves: support, attraction, reproduction

Meristematic Cells: undifferentiated cells for plants

Epidermal tissue: flat tissues on the outer surface of plants

Periderm tissues: tissues on surface of barks

Apical Meristems: stem cells at the tops of the plant to allow it to grow taller

Lateral meristems: steps at the side of the bark areas to make the plant grow wider

Water>root hairs>xylem in roots> stem> petiole> xylem of leaf> spongy mesphyll or palisade> chloroplast


Properties of Metal: Metallic, conductive, malleable, solid

Properties of non metals: solid, gas, or liquid, brittle, dull, insulators

Alkali Metals: most reactive

Alkali Earth Metals: second most reactive

Halogens: most reactive non metal

Noble Gases: least reactive

All based on number of valence electrons

Ions: charged particle that looses or gains electrons to have a full outer orbital

Ionic compounds: having 2 elements come in to make full outer orbital for all by transferring electrons. conduct electricity when dissolved in water

Ionic bond: attraction of 2 elements with positive and negative charges


Metal followed by non metal with “ide” ending

Transitional metals: have 2 or more charges

Transitional metals will have to add (XX) to indicate charge

Criss cross method for formulas

Polyatomic Compounds: ion made up of one or more elements


-Write the name of the cation, then ide after the anion

-criss cross method to determine charges

Molecular/Covalent compounds: compounds through sharing electrons. Some always come in a pair



uses a set of common molecular names

second term/first that is more than one will use prefix system

no charges needs to be indicated

Reactants and products

Single Displacement: one element replaces another, leaving one alone

A+BC -> AC+B

Decomposition: single compound breaks down into another element/compounds

AB-> A+B

Synthesis: opposite of decomp

A+B-> AB

Double displacement: both elements are replaced by another


Combustion: rapid reaction with oxygen to create oxides

Fuel+oxygen->carbon dioxide+ water

Incomplete combusion

Fuel+oxygen->carbon dioxide+water+carbon+carbon monoxide

Hydrocarbons- fossil fuel like gas/coal

Oxidization: reaction slow between oxygen to make an oxide

Law of conservational mass

-The mass of the reactant must equal to the mass of the product. We will use coefficients and multipliers to balance the equations.

Corrosion: bad: car rusting, Good: rusting aluminum

Acids: neutralizes bases

conducts electricity

reacts with metals to create H^2

reacts with carbonates to create CO2

reacts with water to create hydrogen

All acids have “hydro in front: hydrofluiric,

Conducts electricity


Oxyacids derive from polyatomic acids containing oxygen and hydrogen. Add -ate on it

Turns blue litmust paper pink, leaves pink litmus paper pink

Bases: neutralizes bases

When dissolved in water, gives off OH ion

turns red lp blue and keeps blue lp blue

conducts electricity

pH: level of how acetic or basic a solution is based on how much “power of hydrogen”

Acids ranges from 0-7 while bases go from 7-14

Neutralization Reactions: Base+acid will equal to a salt and a water


Light travels in waves and particles

Electromagnetic spectrum

Laws of reflection

  1. the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
  2. the incident ray, reflected ray, and the normal are all on the same plane

Diffused reflection: when rays are reflected over the place and no solid image is seen

Specular reflection: when all light is reflected back at the same angle and an image

Real images: images that can be seen without an optical device and can be projected

Virtual images: images that require an optical device to view

Images in plane mirrors: example diagram


Size: larger, smaller, same

Attitude: upright, inverted

Location: distance between mirror/object

Type: real/virtual

Curved mirrors:

Principal axis: horizontal coming out of the vertex

Focus: point at which the image can be scene clearly

Concave mirrors rules:

  1. light rays parallel to the principal axis will reflect through F
  2. light rays moving in the direction of F will reflect parallel
  3. a light ray going through C will reflect back
  4. a light ray going through V follows laws of reflection

Convex mirrors

  1. horizontal will go through focus
  2. going to focus will go up and from focus
  3. going through C will go back on itself

Refraction: when light slows down as it travels to a denser medium which makes it bend

Rules for refraction: as it travels to a denser medium, it goes nearer to the normal, as it travels to a less dense medium, it goes farther from normal.

Partial reflection: when only some of the light is reflected/refracted and the rest goes back

Index of refraction equation

n=c/v speed of light is 3*10^8

total internal refraction: when light is reflected inwards rather than refracting out

  1. light travels slower in the first medium than second
  2. the angle of incidence is large enough so that no refraction occurs in the medium, instead, the ray is reflected back into the first one


Converging lenses/convex lenses

Locate images based on rules

  1. light going through F will refract horizontally
  2. light going horizontal will refract towards the F
  3. light travelling optical center will go straight
  4. light going through F’ will go horizontal

Diverging lenses/concave lenses

  1. going through optical center will go straight
  2. light going towards F will go straight
  3. light going parallel will head up from the direction of F

Example of locating images


Do- distance of object

Di- distance of image

Ho- height of object

Hi-height of image


Sign conventions:

Di negative if virtual, positive if real

Hi positive if upright, negative if down

Ho positive if upright, negative if down

F positive if converting, negative if down

Human Eye

Lens: changes shape to adjust the focus point of the image in relation to the object distance

Cornea: outer most layer of the eye

Pupil: adjusts amount of light going in

Retina: light sensitive area on the back of the eye

Accommodation: changing the shape of the lens to allow the image to focus sharply on the retina.

Normal sighted diagram

Hyperopia Diagram (far sighted) – corrected using converging lens

-able to see far, the image if far will focus correctly, near, it wont. The eyeball too small


-lens unable to adjust its focus. The person will see far, but not close

Myopia (close sightedness) – corrected using diverging lens

-able to see close, eyeball too long.

Climate Change

Weather: the day to day differences of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity

Climate: measure of the usual patterns over a longer period of time and avg the results

Sun emits energy to the earth, 20% reflected by clouds, 6% by atmosphere and 4% by earth’s surface (rest is absorbed)

Infrared rays, UV, visible light, Xrays, Gamma rays (UV, G, and X are ionizing and filter)

Energy used to warm earth, but 100% of it is emitted back so that the temp remains the same

Climate Zones; regions with similar climate patters of precipitation and temps

Ecosystems: classify more than just climate zones with data on landforms, soil, vegetation, and human factors

Earth tilt at 23.5 degrees. sufficient to create an imbalance of light rays per area at different parts of the earth; resulting in seasons and daylight.

Earth’s Climate System:

Lithosphere: land and ground

Biosphere: living things

Hydrosphere: water

Atmosphere: air

Air circulates in the form of wind which carries moisture or dryness

Water circulates in the form of currents, which affects air above to be dry or warm

Air and water moistures and temps can affect land around it

convection: energy moves from place to place due to changes in density

Atmosphere: layers of air surrounding earth


Trosophere>stratosphere, mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere

20>50> 85> 690>10000


Ozone protects us from harmful rays in stratusphere, but mixes with greenhouse gases to make smog in trososphere

Hydrosphere: water cycle diagram

Greenhouse effect: traps heat in to maintain warmth

Gases in atmosphere affects how the heat is maintained

Gases like 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% argon, methane and other gases contribute to these effects

Carbon cycle: movement of carbon from different climate systems of earth

-Point is, the stuff will still stay back on earth regardless

Carbon Cycle diagrams

Water vapour (67% of gh effect)

Warm air can hold more water than cold air

thus, warm air has potential to move moisture and precipitation

Methane: absorbs 23x more energy than CO2

Nitrous Oxide: 300x more effective than CO2 as a GH gas

Feedback loops: creates an effect that impacts its original cause

Albedo Effect: loop linking the ice on earth and gradual temperature increase

Positive: effect increases the original cause, negative opposite

Climate change

-changing by human causes as well as historically driven natural events

  1. rising global temperatures highest ever
  2. melting ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice
    1. increases sea level if ice sheets melt. ice already in water wont increase level
  1. increase in sea level
    1. natural thermal expansion, groundwater loss, or icesheets more than thought
  2. Severe changes in weather
    1. hurricanes, droughts, heatwaves more frequent due to changes in temperature in oceans and air. # of severe hurricanes 2x in last 40 years
  3. Changes in precipitation patterns
    1. N H, more rain less snow
    2. S H, less rain

6) changes in seasons

1) shorter winters and longer growing season

  1. changes in ecosystems
    1. flowers grow earlier in season
    2. animals have sex sooner
    3. living things migrating to northern regions

Canadian Greenhouse gases

  1. Production of energy
  2. transportation
  3. fugitive emissions: production and refining of fossil fuels
  4. Agriculture: animals, machinery
  5. waste management: sewage, landfills
  6. land use and forestry: deforestation

1Megatonne = 1 billion kg

Measure of emisssion: based on CO2 and each one’s potential to do harm is based of of times of carbon dioxide

Computer modelling

-use real data to make predictions

-either very right or very wrong depending on data

  1. temp assuming only affected by natural causes
  2. temp except added anthropogenic gases

temperature increased exponentially therefore human activity is affecting our climate.