SNC2D Grade 10 Science – Exam Study Notes


SNC2D1 Exam Notes 
 UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY (Chemical Reactions)

COVALENT BONDING
– Sharing e- between two NON-METALS –
– Sharing of electron(s) from two non-metals (SHOWN BY CIRCLES)

IONIC BONDING
– Occurs between a METAL + NON-METAL
– Transfer of electron(s) from the metals to the non-metals (SHOWN BY USING ARROWS

INDICATING THE TRANSFER OF e-)

>Naming ionic compound<
– To name put name of CATION/METALS Sirst then the ANION/NON-METAL “root name and

replace ending with “ide”
e.g. Oxygen -> Oxide, Sulfur -> Sulphide/SulSide, Chlorine -> Chloride, Fluorine, Fluoride

>Writing Formulas<
– Write chemical symbol for both metals and non-metals – Write atom charge
– CRISS-CROSS METHOD

MULTIVALENT METALS
– Elements that have MORE THAN ONE POSSIBLE CHARGE

e.g. Fe+2,+3 Co+2,+3 Mg+2,+3,+4,+6
– To distinguish use ROMAN NUMERALS (1:I, 2:II, 3:III, 4:IV, 5:V, 6:VI, 7:VII, 8:VIII)

e.g. Au2O3 Gold(III)Oxide

MOLECULAR COMPOUND
– Compound containing two non-metals
– Must use preSix naming system (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca)

e.g Co – monocarbon dioxide

>Special molecular compounds<
– NH3 – Ammonia, O3 – Ozone, CH4 – Methane, H2O2 – Hydrogen Peroxide, NH4 – Ammonia

POLYATOMIC IONS
– Two different atoms combined together to make an ion

– Treat as anions or cations
– Combining cations with polyatomic ions

– keep Polyatomic ions in BRACKETS

e.g. K+(SO4)2- Potassium Sulphate
K2(SO4)1 – DO NOT KEEP BRACKETS if subscript outside is 1 K2SO4

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

COUNTING ATOMS
– Subscript indicates # of atoms its beside
– Subscript outside of brackets on the right is multiplies (EXPANSION/DISTRIBUTIVE LAW) – CoefSicients in the front of a compound is multiplied through last of each type of atom

e.g. Copper(II)Chloride

Cu2+Cl- CuCl2 Cu:1 Cl:2

BALENCING EQUATIONS
– Law of conservation of mass
– THE AMOUNT INPUT = AMOUNT OUTPUT

e.g 2NA + MgCo3 Na : 1 2

(NH4)2 SO3 + Ca(OH)2 NH4 : 2
SO3 : 1
Ca : 1

Mg : 1 C:1 O:3

->

Na3Co3 + Mg Na:2
C:1
O:3

Mg:1
e.g ammonium sulSite + Calcium hydroxide

->

CaSO3 + 2NH4OH
Ca :1
SO3:1
NH4:12
OH:12
(PRODUCTS)
=Things made in a reaction

OH : 2
(REACTANT)
=Things put into a reaction

CHEMICAL REACTION
– A process in which some REACTANTS(S) undergo a change to become NEW PRODUCTS STATES OF MATTER
(s) = Solid (l) = Liquid (aq) = Aqueous (substance dissolved in water) (g) = Gas

DIATOMIC GAS HOFBrINCL
H2, O2, F2, Br2, I2, N2, Cl2

TYPES OF REACTION A. SYNTHESIS

– Two or more reactants reacted to give ONE product GENERAL FORMULA: A + B -> AB

e.g. Carbon + Oxygen gas -> Carbon Dioxide C(s) + O2 -> CO2(g)

B. DECOMPOSITION
– One REACTANT breaks down into two or more PRODUCTS GENERAL FORMULA: XY -> X +Y

e.g. ammonium nitrate -> dinitrogen monoxide + water

SNC2D1 Exam Notes 
 NH4NO3 -> N2O + H20

C. SINGLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION
– A single reactant added to some ionic compound where the CATION(METAL) switches

place or the ANION(METAL) switches place

GENERAL FORMULA: A + BC -> B +AC D + BC -> C + BD

e.g. Sluorine gas + sodium iodine F2(g) + 2NaI -> I2(g) + 2NaF

F:2 I:2 Na : 2 Na : 2 I:2 F:2

<- First two switches
<- First and Last switches (HALOGEN ONLY)

e.g. potassium solid + aqueous copper(II) acetate 2K(s) + Cu(CH3COO)2(aq) -> Cu(s) + 2KCH3COO K:12 K:12
Cu : 1 Cu : 1

Ch3C00 : 2 Ch3COO : 1 2

D. DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION
– An ionic compound reacted with another ionic compound – The CATIONS Switches place
GENERAL FORMULA: AB + XY -> AY+ AB

e.g beryllium nitride + rubidium carbonate Be3N2 + 3Rb2Co3 -> 3BeCo3 +2Rb3N Be : 3 Be: 1 3
N:2 N:12

Rb : 2 6 Rb : 3 6 Co3 :13 Co3 :13

COMBUSTION REACTION
– Reaction between a hydrogen (something containing carbon and hydrogen) and oxygen gas – will release energy as product

COMPLETE COMBUSTION
– When there is MORE than enough OXYGEN
– Only CARBON DIOXIDE and WATER are produced GENERAL FORMULA:

Cx Hy + O2(g) -> H2O +O2(g) (x, y are possible coefSicients)

e.g. C5H12 + 8O2 -> 5CO2 + 6H2O

<- Must put the STATE OF MATTER

1. Balance Carbons 2. Balance Hydrogen 3. Balance Oxygen

C : 5
H : 12 O : 2 16

C : 1 5
H : 2 12 O : 3 8 16

INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION
– Combustion reaction that takes place with insufSicient ( not enough) oxygen – Will produce CO2, Co, C(s) [soot] and/or H2O

– In an incomplete combustion, can have up to all four products or any combinations of them

SNC2D1 Exam Notes 
 GENERAL FORMULA:

Cx Hx + O2 -> CO2 + Co + C(s) + H20

PH SCALE
– pH stands for “Power of Hydrogen”
– Measures the acidity of solutions using a numerical scale

More acidic – more H+ ions, few OH- ions More basic – few H+ ions, more OH- ions

Comparing Acidity

e.g. Hydrogen acid has pH of 2.0 and sodium hydroxide has pH of 10
– Hydrogen acid is more acidic by a factor of 1010-2 = 108 = 100000000 more

ACIDS
– An acid is deSined as any compound that dissolves in aqueous solution to form H+ ions

>Properties of acid<
– Sour
– Litmus = Red
– Reacts with carbonate to produce bubbles of CO2(g) – Reacts with metals to produce H2(g)

BASES
– An base is deSined as any compound that dissociates in aqueous solution to form H+ ions

>Properties of base< – Bitter
– Litmus = Blue
– Slippery

– React with oils and grease

NEUTRALIZATION REACTION
– Neutralization reactions are called acid/base reactions – The reactants of neut. are acids and bases
– The product of neut. are H2O and Salt (ionic) GENERAL EQUATIONS:

AB + CD -> AD + CB
acid + base -> water + salt

NAMING BINARY ACIDS Rules:

  1. If you have a BINARY (two element) compound with at least one HYDROGEN and is in AQUEOUS(aq) state then it is binary acid
  2. Use “hydro” preSix
  3. Add root of the anion
  4. add “ic acid” sufSix

e.g. HI(aq) – Hydroiodic acid

NAMING OXYACIDS
– Oxyacids are acids that contain a polyatomic with OXYGEN

SNC2D1 Exam Notes
– Oxyacids contain AT LEAST 3 different elements with Hydrogen, Oxygen and in (aq) state

Rules:

  1. If you have an Oxyacid, containing HYDROGEN, OXYGEN containing polyatomic ions, and inaqueous state, its an oxyacid
  2. Keep root of element in polyatomic ion
  3. Add “ic acid” sufSix

e.g. HCH3COO(aq) – Acetic acid

PHYSICAL PROPERTY
– Characteristics of a substance that can be determined without changing the composition of the

substance

CHEMICAL PROPERTY
– Describes the ability for a substance to undergo changes in composition that would result in new

substance

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

UNIT 2 – BIOLOGY ( Tissues, Organs, and systems of living things)

ORGANELLES IN A CELL (BOTH) CYTOPLASM

– Suspends all the organelles in a cell, in a jelly like substance

CELL MEMBRANE
– A Slexible double-layered, semi-permeable membrane, which supports the cell and acts as

a gate keeper

NUCLEUS
– The “brain” of the cell, a spherical structure where genetic information (DNA) is stored

on chromosomes MITOCHONDRIA

– Also called “power plants”, convert stored energy into a usable form

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
– A 3-D network, transports materials, such as proteins through cell, attach directly to

nucleus and extends to the cell membrane GOLGI BODIES

– Collects & process materials to be removed from the cell, makes secrete mucus

VACULOES
– A single layered membrane enclosing Sluid in a sac, removes unwanted substance,

maintains internal Sluid to keep shape, stores water, fat and food

(PLANTS ONLY)

CELL WALL
– Made of a rigid strong material called cellulose, provides support and protection from

physical injury

LARGE VACUOLES
– Plants have one large vacuole but functions are same as animal cells

CHLOROPLAST
– Contains chlorophyll that helps photosynthesis, gives leaves their green colour, similar

functions as mitochondria

REASONS FOR CELL DIVISION – To GROW
– To REPRODUCE
– To REPAIR

CELL DIVISION FOR REPRODUCTION

Asexual Reproduction – produce off springs from “one” parent, genetically identical to parents Sexual reproduction – produce off springs by “fusion” of two gametes, have genetic info from both

parents

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

CELL DIVISION FOR GROWTH – CELLS need to divide

– Absorbs nutrients quicker (distance) – Energy efSiciency
– Amount used > amount gained is bad – Cell chemical function

– Releases waste quicker

Movement of substance Diffusion

– A transport mechanism for moving chemical into and out of the cell, from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
– i.e. when air freshener is sprayed into the air, it diffuses throughout the room

Osmosis

– The movement of a Sluid, USALLY WATER, across a membrane towards an area of high solute concentration

– – i.e Apple juice solute with water

CELL CYCLE INTERPHASE

– Carries out usual functions, but make copy of its DNA & chromosomes for the next step in cell division

Chromosomes – structure in nucleus containing DNA
– Creates sister chromatids after duplication (Identical copy – sister chromatids)

Centromere holds the sister chromatids together

MITOSIS – (FOUR PHASES – PMAT) FIRST STAGE OF CELL DIVISION
1. PROPHASE (PROACTIVE) (meatball and spaghetti with fries combo)

– DNA condenses, turns visible
– Centrioles (organelles that help duplicate CANDY) move to opposite ends – Nuclear membrane weakens/breaks
– Spindle Sibres grows from centrioles

  1. METAPHASE (MIDDLE) (Ghostbusters)
    – Sister Chromatids move to the “MIDDLE” of the cell – Centrioles pull spindle Siber in opposite direction
  2. ANAPHASE (APART) (Snake of war)
    – Sister chromatids are pulled, splitting centromere – Centroids pull spindle Siber in opposite direction
  3. TELOPHASE (TWO) (Tea time with 2)
    – Chromatids divide into two opposite ends of the cell
    – Two new nuclear membrane forms around chromatids – Spindle Siber disappears
    – Chromosomes thins

CYTOKINESIS – SECOND STAGE OF CELL DIVISION
– Cells get cut in half dividing the cytoplasm
– For plant cells: A cell wall grows inwards to cut the cell

SNC2D1 Exam Notes 
 CANCER

– A broad group of diseases that result in uncontrolled cell division

TUMOUR – A mass of cell that continue to grow and divide without any function in the body BENIGN TUMOUR

– Tumour that does NOT affect surrounding tissues execept for physically crowding

MALIGANT TUMOUR
– Tumour that INTERFERES with functioning of surrounding cells; a cancerous

tumour

METASTASIS
– Cancer cells BREAKING AWAY from original tumour elsewhere in the body

MUTATION
– A random change in the DNA

CARCINOGEN
– Any environmental factor that causes cancer

STRUCTURE OF A CANCER CELL
– Cancer cells grow and divide in the mitosis stage quicker than normal cells – less time for cancer cells to duplicate its DNA
– Prophase and telophase seems quicker in Cancer cells

NORMAL CELL
– Large cytoplasm – Single nucleus
– Singe nucleolus – Fine chromatin

CANCER CELL
– Small cytoplasm
– Multiple Nucleus
– Multiple and large nucleolus – Coarse chromatin

SPECIALIZED CELLS
– A cell that can perform a speciSic function

8 IMPORTANT SPECIALIZED CELL BONE CELLS

– Grows and repairs bones, collects calcium from digest. system, builds up bones around themselves, creates skeleton

WHITE B CELLS
– Moves like an amoeba, engulf bacteria and [ights infections

FAT CELLS
– Have larger vacuoles, stores fat molecules, stores cells chemical energy

RED B CELLS
– Contains hemoglobin that carries O2 in blood, smooth cells allowing passage – through B cells

NERVE CELLS

SNC2D1 Exam Notes
– Long, thin and have many branches, conduct electrical impulses to move body

SKIN CELLS
– Layers of S.C Sit tightly, covers outside of body to protect cell inside and

reduce water lost

MUSCLE CELLS
– Arranged in bundles called muscle Sibres, can contract to make Sibre shorter

and move bone

SPERM CELLS
– Move independently, carries DNA from male parent to join egg in the female

parent

HIERARCHY OF CELLS
– An organizational structure with more complex or important things on Top of the “pyramid”

TISSUE
– Collection of similar cells that have a particular, BUT not limited functions (i.e. Heart

tissues)

ORGAN
– A structure of different tissues working to perform a complex bodily function (i.e.

lungs)

ORGAN SYSTEM
– Consist of one or more organs working together to perform a major VITAL function (i.e.

digest system)

ORGAN SYSTEM
TISSUES (4 MAIN TISSUES) (CENM)

TISSUE

EXAMPLE

DESCRIPTION

FUNCTION

EPITHELIAL

skin, lining of nose and digestive system

The sheet of tightly packed cells covering the surface of internal organs

– Protects from – dehydration

Decreases friction on surface

CONNECTIVE

Bones, tendons and blood

Various cells held together by liquid, solid or gel (KNOWN AS MATRIX)

– Support
– Insulation – Structure

MUSCLE

Striated, smooth, cardiac muscles

Bundles of long cell called muscle Sibre that contains proteins allowing contracting and elongating

Movement

NERVOUS

Brain, spinal cord, sensory nerves

Long cell of Sine branches at end that conduct electrical impulses

– Sensory
– Communicating – Bodily functions

CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION: Process which cells become specialized to perform speciSic functions

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

STEM CELL AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION
– An undifferentiated cell that can be divided to form specialized cells – The umbilical cord contains the most/rich sources of stem cells

TWO TYPES OF STEM CELLS
EMBRYONIC – Can differentiate into any kind of cell
TISSUES – “Adult stem cells” exist within specialized cells i.e. Bone marrow -> blood

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
– Where food energy and nutrient move from being outside of the body to inside of the body – It takes in food, digest food and excretes the remaining waste.

DIGESTIVE TRACT
Epithelial cells – Goblets cells producing mucus, protects from digestive enzymes and acids Mucus tissues
Nerves
Villi – Located in epithelial cells (Sigure like projection) that increase absorption of nutrients

MOUTH

  • –  Mechanically breaks down food by chewing and chemically with salivacontaining enzymes (such as amylase that breaks down starch)
  • –  Food is then passed on to esophagusESOPHAGUS
  • –  Muscular tube connects mouth to stomach and muscle move food down whichis controlled by nerves
  • –  Passed on to stomachPeristalsis – the process of moving food through the esophagus into the stomach with the help of muscles

    STOMACH
    – The stomach holds food, churns it
    – Lines with cells that produce digestive enzymes and acids – Muscles contract to mix with food

    SMALL INTESTINE
    – 6m long
    – Most digestion occurs here
    – Smooth muscles
    – Nutrient diffuse through wall and into blood vessels

    LARGE INTESTING
    – 1.5m long
    – Larger diameter
    – Primarily water absorption
    – Waste material passed on to rectum

    RECTUM
    – Storage feces and water absorption – Waste excreted through anus

    ACESSORY ORGANS

– Organs producing digestive enzymes that help break down food faster

LIVER
– Produces enzymes and bile for small intes. – Bile help break down fat

GALL BLADDER

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

– Produces enzymes

– Stores bile between meals PANCREASE

– Produces insulin to regulate glucose in blood

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  • –  Carries nutrients to cell from intestine, O2 from lungs and CO2, waste away from cell to the lungand kidney respectively
  • –  Regulates body temperature
  • –  Carries chemical message between parts of the bodyHEART
    – Pumps blood through arteries and branch into smaller vessels

    BLOOD

– Connective tissue that circulates through the body and made of 4 parts

Cardiac Muscle Tissues

Nerve Tissues

Connective Tissues

  • –  Only found in heart
  • –  All tissues contracted at the
  • –  same time
  • –  No required though to moveBumps blood

– Controls the rate of heart beat

– Protects the heart

Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)

White Blood Cells (leukocytes)

Platlets

Plasma

  • –  Contains hemoglobin (transports O2
  • –  throughout the body Produced in bone
  • –  marrow No nucleus
  • –  Makes up 1% of blood
  • –  volume
  • –  Have a nucleusFights infection by recognizing and destroy bacterias and viruses
  • –  Makes up less than 1%
  • –  of blood volumeHelps clots blood
  • –  Protein rich Sluid that
  • –  carries blood cellsMakes up 1/2 of blood
  • –  volumeClear

BLOOD VESSELS (three types)

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
– Provides O2 needed by the body and removes CO2 – Works together with the circulatory system

Process- Air goes through the nose and mouth and Siltered/trapped by tiny hairs and mucus

  • –  Air then passes through the pharynx into the trachea(hold by rings of CARTILAGE thatare strong and Slexible)
  • –  epithelial cells in trachea produces mucus and have cilia to remove any left over badmaterial
  • –  After gets separated into two branches [Bronchus (one) bronchi (two)

Arteries (away)

Viens

Capillaries (connects)

– Carries blood away from the – heart

THICKER WALLS to withstand pressure

  • –  Carries blood into the heart
  • –  have valves to prevent Slowing
  • –  backlow pressure, thinner walls than arteries
  • –  Connects arteries and viens
  • –  THIN WALLS allow O2 andnutrient to diffuse from
  • –  capillary into body tissuesCO2 and other waste diffuse out

SNC2D1 Exam Notes
– Then divides into smaller tubes called bronchioles

Gas exchange
– Each bronchioles become tiny sacs called alveoli and also where gas exchange occurs – Each alveolus is surrounded by capillaries where O2 and CO2 diffuse through (the

capillary and alveolus walls
– The main purpose of the respiratory system – Each alveolus is surrounded by capillaries

NERVOUS SYSTEM
– The organ system consisting the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves in which senses the

environment and coordinates appropriate response

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
– The part of the nervous system consisting the brain and spinal cord

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
– The part that consist of the nerves that connect the body to the central nervous system

THREE TYPES OF NERVES FOUND
– Nerves that control the voluntary muscles
– Nerves that carry information form the sensory organs, such as the eyes, ears, tastebuds,

and touch receptors to brain
– Nerves that regulate involuntary functions (breathing, heartbeat, and digestion)

NERVES ARE PROTECTED BY
– Central N.S are shielded by bones – Skull protects the brain
– Spine guards the spinal cord
– Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)

NERVE CELL
MYELIN SHEALTH: Increases signal transfer through the nerves

  • –  Neurons are cells that make up a nervous tissue
  • –  Nerves allow two way Slow of info
  • –  Neruons TRANSMIT info only in ONE DIRECTION
  • –  Nerves cells don’t easily regenerate, only a small gap 1 millimetre
  • –  Nerves are a bundle of neutrons surrounded by connective tissues

SENSORY RECEPTORS
– Special cells that receive input from out external environment, signalling the nerves to

transmit a message
– eyes, ears, mouth, nose, muscles and skin are sensory receptors

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
– Organ system made of bones and skeletal muscle

ROLES OF THE SKELETON
– Provides supports and place for muscles to attach to
– Protects internal organs
– Contains BONE MARROW and produces RBC and WBC
– Three connective tissues (bone, ligament and cartilage) BONES
– Bones are made of bone cells, Ca and P and collagen Sibres

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

– Bones contain nerves and blood vessels and most tissues are not living LIGAMENTS
– Tough and elastic
– Joints and holds bones together

CARTILAGE
– Cartilage cells contain collagen
– Prevents damage to the end of bones (friction) – Strong and Slexible to support the bone

– Made of long collagen Sibre

MUSCLE STRUCTURE
– Contain long muscle cells that make muscle Sibres
– special protein that allows muscles to contract (becomes shorter and thicker)

– Muscle types – skeletal – voluntary, smooth muscle – involuntary, Cardiac – involuntary

PLANT SYSTEM
ROOT SYSTEM

– grows below ground, anchors the plant and absorbs water and minerals from the soil and stores food

SHOOT SYSTEM
– made of the stem, leaves and Slower – conducts photosynthesis
– produces Slowers for reproduction

LEAVES
– main area of photosynthesis, used for support, protection and reproduce
– leaves can be used as food (lettuce, tea) wax and medicine and livestock food

FLOWER
– Contains male or female structure, or both
– Male produces pollen grain, female produce eggs
– Eggs are fertilized by pollen, producing seeds which would become plants
– Flowers are used as food (rice, wheat, corn, vanilla, chocolate) and different

medicines STEM

– Supports the branch, leaves and Slower and transports materials like water and nutrients through the plant

– Stems are used as food (sugar cane, potatoes), paper products, cork, linens and medicines

SYSTEM AND TISSUES IN PLANT

CHARACTERISTIC OF A PLANT
– generally green, caused by chlorophyll in chemical called chloroplast – cannot move, has a root that anchors them in place

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • –  plants make their food through photosynthesis in which tissues in leaves use carbondioxide, water and light energy to produce glucose and oxygen
  • –  glucose helps plant grow

SNC2D1 Exam Notes
EQUATION: CO2 + H20 + (light energy) -> C6H12O6 + O2 + energy (ATP)

FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS VS ANIMALS (SIMILARITY)
– Exchange gases with their surroundings
– More water and nutrients around within their bodies – Have a way of reproducing

TYPES OF PLANT TISSUES – THREE TYPES (D.V.G) DERMAL – Forms the outer part of the plant
– Includes both epidermal and periderm tissues

– Epidermal tissues – Cells covering all non-woody surface of a plant
– Periderm tissues – tissues on a surface of a plant which produces bark on stem and root

VASCULAR – Forms the area that transports water, minerals and nutrients in the plant
– Similar to a network of tubes that reaches from the roots up the stalk, and thought the leaves – Two types of vascular tissues

– Xylem – Vascular tissues in a plant that transports water and dissolved minerals form the roots to the leaves and stem. Prokaryote (NO NUCLEUS ORGANELLES) just a rigid hollow tube, DEAD

– Phloem – Vascular tissues in plant that transports dissolved food and minerals and hormones throughout the plant. Eukaryote (are alive when mature and functioning)

GROUND – Makes the other structure of the plant
– Filters between the dermal and the vascular tissues
– Manufactures nutrients by the process of photosynthesis
– Store carbohydrate in roots, provide storage and support in stem

MERISTEMATIC CELLS – an undifferentiated plant cell that can divide and differentiate to form specialized cells

SPECIALIZED TISSUES AND CELLS IN A LEAF PALLSADE LAYER

– A layer of tall, closely packed cells containing chloroplast, just below the upper surface of a leaf; a type of ground tissue

SPONGY MESOPHYLL
– A region of loosely packed cells containing chloroplast in the middle of a leaf; a type of

ground tissue

CUTICLE
– Layer of wax on the upper and lower surfaces of a lead blocking diffusion of water an gas

STOMATE (Plural: Stomata)
– An opening in surface of leaf allowing the exchange of gas

GUARD CELLS
– One pair of special cells in the epidermis that control opening and closing of each stomate

PLANT GROWTH
Apical Meristems – Undifferentiated cells at the tips of plant roots and shoots; cells that

divide, enabling the plant to grow longer and develop specialized tissues

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

Lateral Meristems – undifferentiated cells under the bark in the stems and roots of woody plants; cells that divide, enabling the plant to grow wider and develop specialized tissues in the stem
UNIT 3 – PHYSICS (Optics)

THE PRODUCTION AND REFLECTION OF LIGHT INTRODUCTION OF LIGHT

– Light travels at 3.00 x 108 m/s in vacuum, 2.26 x 108 m/s in water
– Speed of light travels at an equivalent to 7.5 rotations around earth in 1 second

PROPERTIES OF LIGHT
– Travels in a STRAIGHT LINE
– Travels at the SPEED OF LIGHT
– Light energy transmitted through RADIATION
– Is any ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES a human can detect – Appears as a BEAM

MEDIUM
– any physical substance through which energy can be transformed

RADIATION
– a method of energy transfer that does NOT require a MEDIUM; the energy travels at SL

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
– a wave that has both electric and magnetic parts, does not require a medium and travels

at the SL

– Spectrum (RMIVXG) – Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, X-Ray, Gamma Ray LUMINOUS OBJECT
– Produces its own light

NON-LUMINOUS OBJECT
– Does not produce its own light

TYPES OF LIGHT PRODUCTION
• Incandescence – Production of light from high temperature

– i.e. incandescence light bulb, candle, sparks
• Electric Discharge – Production of light from electricity passing through gas

– i.e. neon sign, Geissler tube, Lighting
• Phosphorescence – production of light from absorption of UV light resulting in visible light

– i.e. glow-in-dark-stickers
• Fluorescence – Immediate light emission from absorption of UV light

– i.e. highlighter, clothing, Slorescence light
• Chemiluminescence – Direct light production from chemical reaction, no heat

– i.e. glow-sticks
• Bioluminescence – Chemical light procession within an organism

– i.e. glow worms, SireSly
• Triboluminescence – Production of light from friction of scratching, crushing, rubbing certain

crystal
– i.e. quartz

TERM OF REFLECTIONS
• Light ray – line representing the direction and path the light travels
• Geometric optics – uses of light rays to determine the behaviour of light when strikes object

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

• Incident light – light emitted from a source that strikes an object
• Transparent – when material transmits ALL or ALMOST ALL incident light, CLEAR
• Translucent – when material transmits SOME incident light
• Opaque – when material transmits NO incident light at all, absorbed or reSlected
• Image – REPRODUCTION of an object thought the uses of light
• Mirror – Any POLISHED surface reSlecting images
• Re[lection – The bouncing back of light from a surface
• Plane mirror – or Slat mirror, illustrates how predictable the path of light when hits the mirror • Incident ray – INCOMING rays that strikes a surface
• Re[lected ray – the ray that bounces off a reSlective surface
• Normal – the perpendicular line to a mirror surface
• Angle of incidence – the angle between the incident ray and normal
• Angle of re[lection – the angle between the reSlected ray and normal

LAW OF REFLECTION
– The angle of incidence equals the angle of reSlection
– The incident ray, the reSlected ray, and the normal all lie in the same space

SPECTACUALR REFLECTION
– reSlection of light off a smooth surface

– i.e A mirror, dico ball, water reSlection, metallic surfaces DIFFUSE REFLECTION
– ReSlection of light off an irregular or dull surface

– i.e ripples in water, curved mirror, crumpled Al foil IMAGES IN PLANE MIRROR

Rules/Steps
1. Draw exact image on the other end
2. Find 2 points on the object
3. Draw lines (dotted/solid) through the eye to the points
4. Draw lines from the real image to the other line interacting the mirror

CURVED MIRROR

CONCAVE/CONVERGING
– Used in real applications like make up mirror, satellite dish

CONVEX/DIVERGING
– Used in real applications like security mirrors

S.A.L.T
Size – the size of the image compared to the object (small, large, medium) Altitude – the image position from the PA (upside down/inverted, upright) Location – The location in which the image is formed (in front, behind mirror) Type – Real or Virtual

Real – Image formed in front of mirror and reSlected rays converge Virtual – Image formed (usually) behind the mirror where “extensions” of

reSlection ray meet NOT ACTUALLY REFLECTED RAY (dotted lines

REFRACTION OF LIGHT
– The bonding of light when the light passes from one medium to another

– Bends because light travels at different speed depending on the medium it travelling through

RULES OF REFRACTION
– FAST -> SLOW, refracted ray TOWARDS normal – SLOW -> Fast, refracted ray AWAY normal

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

INDEX OF REFRACTION
n = c/v
n = INDEX OF REFRACTION
C = SPEED OF LIGHT IN AIR (3.00 x 108 m/s) V= SPEED OF LIGHT IN MEDIUM

CRITICAL ANGLE & TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
CRITICAL ANGLE – (SLOW -> FAST) angle of incidence will cause the angle of refraction to

be 90 ̊
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION – when incident angle > the CRITICAL ANGLE, the ray

reSlects instead of refract

  • –  light must be traveling from slow -> fast
  • –  angle of incidence must be large enough that the light reSlects instead of refracts
  • –  examples of TNR are how diamond sparkles and how Sibre optics worksREFRACTION – SNELL’S LAW

– Equation used to determine how a light ray refracts or the index of reSlection from angles of

incidence & refraction

EQUATION : n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2
n1 = Index of refraction of medium #1
n2 = “medium 2”
θ1 = (incident angle) light ray to normal θ2 = (angle of refraction) light ray – normal

LENS
CONVERGING LENS

– lens thats thickest in the middle
– RAYS CONVERGE at a single point after lens when incident ray are parallel to (PA) – Focal point, opposite side for converging lens
DIVERGING LENS
– lens that is thinnest in the middle
– rays DIVERGE/SPRAY after passing through lens when incident ray parallel to (PA) – Focal point, on same side as the incident ray
IMAGES IN LENS

Lateral displacement/sideway displacement
– the thicker the rectangular prism the light is refracted through the larger material

displacement it has Converging lens images

1. Parallel incident ray, refract F
2. Incident ray, through F (secondary focus) 3. Incident Ray through O

Diverging lens images
1. Parallel incident ray, reSlect as if it cam from F
2. Incident ray aimed at F, reSlected light ray parallel to PA 3. Incident ray aimed at C, reSlections on same path

LENS EQUATIONS
THIN LENS EQUATION : MAGNIFACTION EQUATION:

F = 1/di + 1/do M = hi/ho = – di/do
do = distance from OBJECT to OPTICAL CENTRE (ALWAYS POSITIVE)
di = distance form OPTICAL CENTRE to IMAGE (+ when REAL, – When VIRTUAL) ho = heigh of OBJECT from P.A to top (coordinates x, y)

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

hi = height of IMAGE from P.A to top
f = OPTICAL CENTRE to F “FOCAL LENGTH” (+ Converging)(- Diverging) M = magniSication (+ Upright)(- Inverted)

Variable

Positive

Negative

do (object distance)

ALWAYS

di (image distance)

REAL IMAGE FORMED

VIRTUAL IMAGE FORMED

ho (object height)

Above P.A

Below P.A

hi (image height)

Above P.A

Below P.A

ƒ (focal length)

CONVERGING

DIVERGING

M (magniSication)

UPRIGHT

INVERTED

FOCUS PROBLEMS
Accommodations – changing shape of the lens by eye muscle to focus image on retina

FARSIGHTEDNESS – (HYPEROPIA)
– able to see objects far away clearly – eyeball is compressed
– focuses BEHIND RETINA

FIXING with POSITIVE MENISCUS

NEAR-SIGHTED – (MYOPIA)
– able to see object close up clearly
– far objects are blurry
– eyeball is elongated
– IMAGES focuses in front of the retina

FIXING with NEGATIVE MENISCUS

SNC2D1 Exam Notes 
 UNIT 4 – ENVIRONMENT (Climate Change)

WEATHER CLIMATE
 WEATHER

– Atmospheric conditions, including temperature precipitation, wind, and humidity in a particular location over a short period of time, such as a day or a week (water, air, energy from sun)

CLIMATE
– The average of the weather in a region over a long period of time

METEOROLOGIST
– Meteorologist gather information on weathers around the world and uses this

information to forecast the weather

THE SUNS AND EARTH’S CLIMATE SYSTEM
– Almost all energy comes from the sun
– FACTORS that affect earth’s climate are AIR, LAND, LIQUID WATER, ICE AND LIVING

THINGS
Sun emits

– INFRARED LIGHT (IR) (low energy, long wavelengths) – ULTRA VIOLET (UV) ( high energy, short wavelengths) – VISIBLE LIGHT

– RADIATION can be absorbed, transmitted and reSlected off particles

Where light goes on earth
– 30% reSlects back to space from

– Clouds (20%)
– Atmosphere (6%)
– Surface of earth (4%)

– 70% absorbed by atmosphere, clouds, oceans and lands
– 1% used for photosynthesis m rest are absorbed and cause rocks to gain

thermal energy
– After sun’s energy is absorbed, IR radiation are emitted back out

Effects of latitude
– Earth is tiled by 23.5 ̊ brings us different temperature (seasons) yearly

– Latitude measured from the distance of the equator – Tilt means warmer climate at lower latitude

COMPONENTS OF EARTH’S CLIMATE ATMOSPHERE

– The atmosphere is made of layer of gases surrounding earth
– 3 main gases that make up air are 78% N2, 21% O2, 1% O3, Ar, CO2, H, He

Different layers of atmosphere (ETMST)
Exosphere – satellites orbit (10,000 km)
Thermosphere – spaceshuttle orbits (500 to 1000 km) Karman Line – aurora (100 km)
Mesosphere – meteors burn up (80 to 85 km) Stratosphere – ozone gas in higher concentrations (50 km) Troposphere – weather occurs, ozone (7 to 17 km)

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

HYDROSPHERE
– The part of the climate system that includes all water on and around earth
– Water cycle – where energy absorbed when evaporates, condenses into clouds and

warms surroundings
– Water absorbs and stores more thermal energy that land and heats up and cools

down more slowly than land. Regions near a body of water tend to have cooler

summer and warmer winters LITHOSPHERE

  • –  The part of the climate system made up of the rocks, soil and minerals of theearth’s crust
  • –  Higher altitude = lower pressure = more air moves up causing cooler air thatlower altitude
    LIVING THINGS
    – All living things
    – Releases CO2 and some releases methane and absorbs infrared radiation affecting

    climate
    ENERGY TRANSFER WITHIN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM

HEAT SINKS
– A reservoir, such as the ocean, that absorbs and stores thermal energy

– water can absorb much more thermal energy that air
CONVECTION CURRENT
– Movement of warm air and cold air creates a circular pattern called a convection

current
– these current helps move energy from the equator towards the north & south

poles
PREVALLING WINDS
– Wind that tend to move in the same direction almost all the time
JET STREAM
– High altitude winds that travel log distances at very high speeds
– affect precipitation
– may carry warm, moist air producing precipitation or dry, cool air dry weather

ENERGY TRANSFER IN THE OCEAN
– As water travels towards the poles, it gets colder, making it dense and sinks to the

ocean Sloor
THERMALHALINE CIRUCLATION

  • –  Driven by the differences in water temp and salinity
  • –  Currents move energy from equator to poles creating the ocean conveyor

belt
EFFECTS OF OCEAN CURRENTS

– warm ocean currents heats air above and vice versa
– produces rain when warm, moist air reaches land and vice versa

Tetonic Plates – earths outer layer composed of massive prices of solid rock
– earth has about 12 major plates moving few cm each year
– affects patterns of air and water circulation and the transfer of thermal energy Volcanic Eruption – when plates move they cause eruptions
– spew ash and other particles called aerosols into atmosphere (sulphate aerosols) – particles reSlect solar radiation, cooling global climate

– which can last few yearsbefowre its removed (percip, settling) – rise in GHG

ALBEDO (EFFECT)

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

  • –  is a measure of how much of sun’s radiation is reSlected back by a surface (%)
  • –  light coloured surfaces reSlect energy, dark surfaces absorbs it
  • –  snow and ice reSlect solar radiation

– greatly affect global temperature
– the positive feedback loop in which an increase in earth;s temperature causes ice

to melt, more radiation is absorbed by earth’s surface, increased temp

GREEN HOUSE GASES
– Any gas in the atmosphere that absorbs lower energy infrared radiation
– NITROGEN (N2) OXYGEN (O2) found most in atmosphere (DOES NOT ABSORB IR)

Examples of GHG
• Water vapour
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
• Methane (CH4)
• Troposphere Ozone (O3) • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

GREENHOUSE EFFECT
– A natural process whereby gases and clouds absorbs IR emitted from earth’s surface and

radiates it, heating the atmosphere and earth’s surface Anthropogenic: Resulting from a human inSluence

Anthropogenic GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC’S

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) (385 ppm)
– Second most common greenhouse gas, causes about 1/4 (25%)

– produced by
– vehicle and factory emissions – plant respiration
– animal respiration
– burning tree and fossil fuel

Carbon sinks
– CO2 dissolves in the ocean and forms solid calcium carbonate
– recently increased in carbon due to global temperature
– disruption of the soil and loving, forming speeds carbon release
– photosynthesis process of forest requires carbon to grow, absorbing/storing CO2 – Part of plant respiration and the decomposition of trees, they release CO2

WATER VAPOUR (H2O)
– Most common GHG (green house gas), about 2/3 (66.6%) of natural gas effects – the vapours when temperature rises, creates clouds trapping heat close to earth

METHANE (CH4) (1.785 ppm)
– Third most common GHG
– Natural gas a fossil fuel often used to heat homes and run vehicle, formed by decay of

organic matter (plants & animals) but these plants decompose thousands of years ago

– found 3000-15000 feet below surface
– Animals such as cows, sheep’s, bison’s multiple digestive system have microbes that

release methane when breaking down

OZONE (O3)
– Found naturally in the stratosphere, caused 1/3 of direct GHG since industrial revolution – Protects earth’s surface from sun’s higher energy UV radiation

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

– Ozone found in the troposphere are harmful (smog from UV, exhaust, causes toxic corrosive effect)

– InSlux from stratosphere ands photo chemical reaction with higher levels of air pollution (UV radiation combined with exhaust from cars producing toxic chemical and O3)

NITROUS OXIDE (N20) (0.321 ppm)
– farmer’s uses of chemical fertilizers that are nitrogen based can be released, as fertilizers

breakdown when farmers prepare lands for crops

CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (CFC’S)
– commonly found in refrigeration agents and air conditioners
– CFC’s broken down by UV radiation near ozone layer, freeing chlorine, which has the

potential to destroy large amounts of ozone
– therefore, depletion in ozone in Antarctica & increased in genetically harmful UV rays

to earth
STUDY CLUES TO PAST CLIMATE PROXY RECORDS

– Preserved characteristics of the past that can be measured, which allows scientist to reconstruct the climate conditions that occurred during much of earth’s history

TREE RINGS – Inside of a tree core containing tree rings
– the thickness of the rings tell wet and dry years in a certain region, thin = dry year – a larger/thicker ring means a good growth year

ICE CORES – slices of a long rod of ice drilled in ice

  • –  the bubbles Silled with air help determine climate of past by preserving ancientair
  • –  the preserved air can help analyze the climate of the past, see temperatures andsupports GW theory
  • –  scientist found out that CO2 decrease in ice age and CO2 increase after the ice ageFOSSILS
  • –  researchers found/estimated from the scallops and diatoms that anoretic use tobe warm climates
  • –  Suggest air wasn’t always cold because these creatures can’t survive in this temp.SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
    – dark sediments of the face of a cliff represent lava formations
    – sedimentary rocks are obtained by drilling the rock
    – cores that combine algae tells the researcher that temperature was warmer than

    when sediments where with pebbles and stones
    – Researchers use geothermal techniques under a microscope to determine dates of

    rock layer
    – Coralizer takes hi-res photos of the core samples

    EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE (CC)

EFFECTS OF CC IN ATMOSPHERE – changes in severe weather

– more frequent intense, severe weathers than the past – Heatwave
– Drought

SNC2D1 Exam Notes

– WildSires – Storms
– Floods

  • –  Changes in precipitation pattern
  • –  Changes in season

EFFECTS OF CC IN HYDROSPHERE
– Melting glacier
– Ocean warming & rising sea levels

– warmer waters = less CO2 absorption, less effective carbon sink = increase in GHG – Ocean currents – change in Slow

– Over the past century, average ocean temp has increased by about 0.6 ̊c

EFFECTS OF CC IN WILDLIFE
– Change in ecosystem (shifting in ecosystems) – Threat species

– force organisms to adapt and migrate, or they will become extinct
– If global avg. temp increases by 3.3 ̊c between 40 and 70% of all species are risk of

extinction