SNC2D Grade 10 Science – Exam Review Questions

  1. What do prokaryotes not contain?

No nucleus or other membrane

  1. What do eukaryotes have?

A nucleus and other organelles

  1. What do plant cells have that animals do not?

A cell wall and chloroplasts

  1. Define:
    1. Cytoplasm: suspends organelles in a cell
    2. Endoplasmic reticulum: transports materials throughout the cell
    3. Nucleus: stores genetic material and performing mitosis
    4. Mitochondria: converts glucose with oxygen to make energy for cell
    5. Cell membrane: support cell and allow diffusion
    6. Chloroplast: absorbs light and converts it to energy
    7. Golgi bodies: collects and removes materials from cell
    8. Vacuoles: isolating and removing waste, maintaining pressure
    9. Mitosis: IPMAT(Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase)
    10. Chromatid: 2 identical strands of DNA, makes up the chromosome
    11. Centromere: structure that holds the chromatid together as chromosomes
    12. Cancer: caused my mutation cells
    13. Carcinogens: factors that increase cancer risks
    14. Benign: unharmful tumor
    15. Malignant: harmful tumor
  1. Name 3 ways of detecting cancer.

Pap, psa, self exam.

  1. Name 3 treatments for cancer.

Chemo, radiation, surgery.

  1. What are stem cells? Explain. Give an example.

Cells that are able to divide into any type of cell by turning on some of the DNA to allow some functions. An example would be the umbilical cord

  1. List the jobs of organs.

Obtain O2, get nutrients, make waste, adapt, repair, grow, change.

  1. List 4 types of tissues; give a brief description and some examples.

Epithelial: skin, lining of digestive system

  • Thinly packed cells

Connective: Bone, tendons, blood

  • Various cells, fibres held together by a single organ

Muscle: muscles, heart, digestive muscles

  • Expand and contract on demand to create movement

Nervous: brain, nervous system

  • Long thin cells that convey electric currents to control body movements
  1. What is the order of the digestive track?

Mouth>esophagus>small intestine>large intestine>rectum> anus

  1. Name the functions of the following terms.
    1. Goblet cells: produce mucus to protect from acids
    2. Mouth: break down foods
    3. Esophagus: where food travels down through smooth muscles
    4. Stomach: churns food with enzymes to digest food
    5. Small intestine: smooth muscles bring nutrients into blood vessels
    6. Large intestine: food left to dry
    7. Liver: produces enzymes for digestion
    8. Gull bladder: produces bile to kill fat
    9. Pancreas: produces insulin to control blood sugars
  1. What 3 things are in the circulatory system?

Blood, Heart, blood vessels

  1. Name the function/describe the following:
    1. Platelets: keeps blood from clotting
    2. Plasma: 50% of blood, protein rich fluid to carry cells
    3. Heart: responsible for pumping around body
    4. Cardiac muscle: only in heart
    5. Nerve tissue: controls beating frequency
    6. Connective tissue: Protect heart from friction/collision.
    7. Arteries: carries blood under high pressure with thick walls
    8. Veins: carries blood under low pressure with thin walls
    9. Capillaries: Cell sized width, carries oxygen and diffusion at this level
    10. Gas Exchange: transferred through diffusion into blood through capillaries
    11. Musculoskeletal System: supports body and movement, protection
    12. Bone: Made of calcium and phosphorus, marrow inside to make blood
    13. Ligament: Bonds bone to bone
    14. Cartilage: provides lubrication
    15. Muscle: cells contract in long fibers to provide movement
      1. Skeletal muscle: voluntary movement
      2. Smooth muscle: involuntary movement
    16. Dermal tissue: outer surfaces
    17. Vascule tissue: transportation
    18. Ground tissue: all others
    19. Shoot system: conducts photosynthesis and produces flowers
    20. Root system segment that primarily grows underground
    21. Leaves: support, attraction, reproduction
    22. Meristematic Cells: undifferentiated cells for plants