SNC2D Grade 10 Science Exam Review

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SNC2D Exam Review 2013 – 2014 2014 – 06 – 22

Unit 1 – Chemistry

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1. What information can be obtained from the atomic number? Mass number?

– From the atomic number, the number of electrons and protons in an atom can be – determined

The difference between the mass number and atomic number is the number of protons in

an atom

!Chlorine
!Atomic number = 17; Mass number = ~ 35 !Number of Protons: 17
!Number of Electrons: 17

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!!Number of Neutrons: 35 – 17 = 18 2. Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds.

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3. How can you identify an acid? A base?

Acids feature hydrogen, while bases feature hydroxide.

4. How can you identify the number of valence electrons for a particular element?

The group number tells the number of valence electrons (electronics in the outer most shell). Example: Hydrogen, group #1, 1 valence electron; Nitrogen, group 5, 5 valence electrons)
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5. How can you use the periodic table to identify the ionic charge of the elements in each group?

The ionic charge of an element is determined by finding the number of valence electrons it would need to gain or lose to have a full outer shell (octet rule). If the element is losing electrons it has a positive charge; if it is gaining electrons it has a negative charge. Example: A group two element has an ionic charge of +2, a group seven element has an ionic charge of -1.

Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds

Metal (cation) and non-metal (anion)

Non-metal and a non-metal

Electrons are given

Electrons are shared

Can conduct electricity in water

Do not connect electricity

Example: Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

Example: Trinitrogen Fluoride (NF3)

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6. State the law of conservation of mass.

Matter cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change states during a chemical reaction.

7. What are the starting and final substances called in a chemical reaction.

Starting substances: Reactants
Final substances: Products
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8. List the signs of a chemical change. !

Chemical Change

A substance changed into one or more different substances Evidence of a chemical change:
A new colour appears
Heat or light is produced or absorbed

Bubbles of gas are fired
A solid precipitates (ppt) forms in a liquid
Change is generally difficult to reverse
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Physical Change
A change in state (solid to a gas, gas to a liquid…)
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9. Explain the criss-cross rule for forming ionic compounds. – Write the charges of each element above them
– Criss cross the numbers and reduce if applicable
– Drop the signs (the negative and positive)
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10. How does a positive ion form, negative ion.
Positive: positive ion forms when it gives away electrons Negative: negative ion forms when it gains electrons
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11. Draw the Bohr-Rutherford Diagram for a Lithium ion.

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12. What are the charges and locations of the following: protons, electrons and neutrons.

Neutrons are neutral, located in the nucleus

Protons are positive, located in the nucleus
Electrons are negative, located in the orbits of an atom !
13. Complete the following table.

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14. Complete and balance the following equation.

__ Cl + __ HCl = __ + __
Answer: Ca +2HCl = CaCl2 + H2
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15. Where are metals found on the periodic table? Non-metals? Metalloids? Metalloids are found adjacent to the “staircase” on the periodic table
Non-metals are found to the right of the metalloids
Metals are found to the left of the metalloids (aluminum is a metal)
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16. Describe properties of acids and bases.

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17. Draw and label a pH scale.

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Compound NH2 Mg(OH)2 Li3PO4

Ionic or Covalent

Covalent

Polyatomic

Polyatomic

Name

Nitrogen Hydride

Magnesium Hydroxide

Lithium Phosphate

Total number of atoms

3

3

7

Acids Bases

Produce hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water

Produce hydroxide ions (OH) when dissolved in water

Water soluble, good conductor of electricity

Water soluble, good conductor of electricity

Sour tasting

Bitter tasting

Reactive and corrosive

Feel slippery when in aqueous solutions

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18. Compare and contrast elements and compounds. Give examples.

Elements Compounds

A pure chemical substance made of the same type of atom

A chemical mixture of elements featuring different types of atoms in a fixed ratio

Distinguished by an atomic number and mass

Elements arranged in a fixed ratio through chemical bonds (ionic or covalent)

Represented by symbols; no charge

Represented by formulas

Cannot be broken down further

Can be broken down into individual elements

Examples: Carbon (C), Antimony (Sb), Gold (Au)

Examples: Copper Chloride (CuCl), Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

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19. Give the formula for the following compounds.

Name Formula

Sodium sulphide

Na2S

Aluminum sulphate

Al2(SO4)3

Tin (II) iodide

SbI3

Fluorine gas

F2

Iodine heptachloride

ICl6

Dinitrogen Tetraoxide

N5O3

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Also: Note the types of chemical reactions. A. Synthesis

A + B = AB

B. Decomposition

AB = A + B

C. Single Displacement

A + BC = AC + B

D. Double Displacement

AB + CD = AD + BC

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Unit 2 – Biology

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1. What is chlorophyll and how is it used in plants?

Chlorophyll is located in the chloroplast of plants, and is a green pigment. It absorbs light energy from the sun and uses the energy to synthesize carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide (photosynthesis).
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2. Differentiate between the structure and function of the three types of blood vessels.

Plasma
– Yellowish/clear colour – Contains:

– Electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-) for brains and muscles
– Proteins – Albumin, Immunoglobins, Fibrinogen (immune system components) – Water (universal solvent)

Red Blood Cells (RBC)
– Carry oxygen (O2)
– Contains millions of Hemoglobin
– Do not contain a nucleus – no mitosis
– 120 day lifespan
– Made in bone marrow, die in liver and spleen
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White Blood Cells (WBC)
– Important player in immune system
– The immune system attacks and eliminates foreign invaders (bacteria, pollen, etc.) – Live for less than ten days
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3. What are two parts of the nervous system? What does each consist of?
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Part Elements

Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

Nerves that run from the body to the Central Nervous System that carry instructions to and from the environment and the brain

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4. Name and describe each phase of cell division that occurs in the growth stages and division stages.
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Phases of the Cell Cycle What Happens

Interphase

– Longest stage for cells
– Cells perform specific and unique functions based on individual cell (nerve cell, muscle cell, skin cell, intestinal cell)
– DNA (genetic material is copied and the cells prepare to divide

Mitosis

Stages of mitosis divide the nucleus of the cell. (see stages of mitosis)

Cytokinesis

– Divides the cytoplasm and organelles

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Phases of Mitosis What Happens

Prophase

– Nucleolus disappears
– Nuclear envelope starts to break up
– DNA condenses – shortens and thickens into chromosomes
– Centrioles begin to migrate to opposite ends of the horizontal equator of the cell
– Spindle fibres are attached to the centrioles

Metaphase

– Nuclear envelope is gone
– Centrioles are now at opposite ends of the horizontal equator (anchor)
– 46 chromosome pairs line up on the vertical equator
– Spindle fibres, originating from the centrioles are attacked to each chromosome pair at the centromere

Anaphase

– Cells start to stretch and elongate
– Chromosome pairs split at the centromere
– Chromosomes (46 pairs) begin to move to opposite poles of the horizontal equator being pulled by the centrioles and spindle fibres

Telophase

– Chromosomes on opposite ends of the cell
– Creation of a participial nuclear envelope animal cells – a cytoplasmic grove is established in preparation for splitting (purse string closure)

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5. Draw a diagram to illustrate the phases of Mitosis.

6. State the cell theory.

i. All living things are made up of cells.
ii. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life.
iii. All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
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7. Label and provide the function for the following organelles: nucleus, nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, Golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast, vacuole.
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Part of Cell Function

Nucleus (Eukaryotes only)

Contains DNA and controls cell activities

Nuclear membrane (Eukaryotes only)

Selectively permeable; controls what goes in and out of the nucleus

Cytoplasm (All cells)

Supports and protects all organelles

Mitochondria (Eukaryotes only)

Releases ATP energy from glucose stored in the cell

Golgi body (Eukaryotes only)

Packages, transports and modifies proteins, particularly important for the secretion of proteins

Endoplasmic reticulum (Eukaryotes only)

Network of tubes to carry material through cells, help make protein

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Part of Cell Function

Ribosome (All cells)

Small bodies free or attached to Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum that synthesize proteins

Cell membrane (All cells)

Selectively permeable; lets certain things in/out

Cell wall (Prokaryotes and plant cells only)

For support

Chloroplast (Plant and algae cells only)

Uses energy from the sun to make food (glucose) for the plant

Vacuole (Large in plants, small in animals)

– Food storage of particles until digestion – Central storage in plants

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Animal Cell

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Plant Cell

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8. Name the three accessory organs. What is their role in digestion?

Liver – Detoxification and filtering of blood, produces bile and stores glycogen energy

Pancreas – Releases insulin and glucagon into blood and digestive enzymes into food Gallbladder – Stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver
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9. What are the five main functions of the musculoskeletal system?

i. Shape and support of the body
ii. Movement (When muscles contract they pull on bones and bones move)
iii. Protection (E.g. Vertebral column, or backbone, protects the delicate spinal cord of nerves) iv. Storage (Stores calcium and phosphorus needed for nerves and muscles to function)
v. Blood Manufacture
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10. Differentiate between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Give examples of each.

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11. Explain the mechanics of breathing and how oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs.
– Initially the blood has high CO2 and low O2
– The inhaled air is rich in O2 and low in CO2

– During gas exchange the O2 goes from the alveoli to the blood and CO2 goes from the blood to the alveoli
– The result is that blood will have lots of O2 and exhaled air has lots of CO2
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12. Explain the general path of blood through the circulatory system. Be sure to name the correct bloods vessels in which blood is traveling in.
Blood flows…

To the superior and inferior vena cava, then to the right atrium, through the tricuspid valve, to the right ventricle,
through the pulmonic valve, to the pulmonary artery, to the lungs

The blood picks up oxygen in the lungs, and then flows from the lungs: to the pulmonary veins, to the left atrium
through the mitral valve, to the left ventricle
through the aortic valve, to the aorta

to the body

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Prokayotic (Eg. E.Coli Bacterium) Eukaryotic (Eg. Animals, Plants)

Smaller in size (< 5um)

Bigger in size

No nucleus

Has nucleus

Always unicellular

Mostly multicellular but can be unicellular

Always asexually reproduced

Reproduction can be sexual or asexual

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13. Describe how food is chemically and physically broken down as it travels down each part of the digestive system.
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– The mouth physically breaks down food

– Amylase in saliva in the mouth begins to chemically break down the food
– In the stomach enzymes are released into the food, chemically breaking it down
– In the stomach the food is also mixed and churned, breaking down physically
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Unit 3 – Climate Change
1. What is the greenhouse effect?
– warming of the earth that balances the earths cooling process
– sunlight passes through Earth’s atmosphere as short wave radiation
– some radiation is absorbed by earths surface
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2. Name a significant greenhouse gas that is being emitted by humans.
– Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
– Methane (CH4)
Other Green house Gasses
– Carbon Monoxide (CO)
– Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
– Water Vapour
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3. List the evidence of climate change.
– the melting of ice glaciers
– the rise in the earths water levels
– the warming of the earths atmosphere
– the depletion of the earths ozone layer
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4. Describe some of the solutions we can take to reduce climate change.
– Car pool
– Turn off the lights when not in use
– Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
– Buy renewable energy
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5. List the effects that acid precipitation has on the environment
– soil lacks nutrients and trees cant grow
– can destroy aquatic ecosystems
– erodes stone and metal
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6. Define Conduction, Convection and Radiation
Convection – transfer of heat through circulation of air. (air)
Convection – the transfer of heat through two parts, caused by a temperature difference. Radiation – the process of heat entering as particles or water (sun)

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Unit 4 – Optics

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1. Define bioluminescence and give an example.

Bioluminescence: the ability of a plant or animal to produce light. Example – Firefly
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2. Define Refraction

Refraction: the bending of light as it enters a new medium. Example – air to water
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3. What is the speed of light?

Speed of light (c) = 3 x 10^8 m/s

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4. State the law of regular regular reflection (from a plane mirror). Draw a diagram to explain your answer.
Law of reflection: The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

5. What is the difference between translucent, transparent and opaque.

Transparent
– The ability to let certain wavelengths pass through them and objects can be clearly seen (transmits light)
Example – glass, water
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Translucent
– object only allows some colours of light pass through but not others
– materials that let light pass through but cannot be clearly seen
– diffuse or scatter blue
Example – wax paper, frosted glass
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Opaque
– materials that absorb or reflect ALL of the light
– do not let light pass through
Example – book, wall, door, desk

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6. What is the difference between non-luminous and luminous

Luminous: objects which generate their own light

Non-luminous: objects which are capable or reflecting light to our eyes

7. Compare and contrast real and virtual images (include attitude).

Real images are inverted: they start on the principal axis and go down.
Virtual images are upright: they start on the principal axis and go up.
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8. Define chemiluminescence. Give an example.
Chemiluminescence: light produced by chemical reactions with no rise in temperature (called “cool light”)

Example – glow sticks

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9. What is a converging mirror also known as? Diverging mirror?

Converging – Concave
Diverging – Convex
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10. Use SALT to describe an image created from a plane mirror.

Size – Same
Attitude – Upright
Location – distance object (do) = distance image (di) Type – Virtual
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11. Describe how an image refracts from going from more optically dense to less optically dense mediums and vice versa.
When an image goes from a less dense to more dense medium, it bends towards the normal and therefore the angle between the light ray and medium decreases. When an image goes from a more dense to less dense medium, it bends away from the normal and therefore the angle between the light ray and the normal increases.

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12. Draw ray diagrams and describe the characteristics (SALT) with an object reflecting off a

concave mirror, when the object is located:

a) on C b) between F and C

c) on F

d) between F and the mirror

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a) Object on C

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S – Same Size A – Inverted L – At C
T – Real

b) Object between F and

C!

S – Larger
A – Inverted L – Behind C T – Real

c) On F

NO IMAGE

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S – n/a A – n/a L – n/a T – n/a

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d) Between F and the Mirror

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S – Larger
A – Upright
L – Behind Mirror T – Virtual

13. Determine image characteristics for an object 2 cm high, placed in front of a converging mirror with a focal length of 24 cm at a distance of 10 cm.
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Given

ho = 2
f = 24
do = 10
! Required hi

di M!

Analysis

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Solve

1/24 = 1/di = 1/10
1/di = 5/120 – 12/120
1/di = -7/120
di = -120/7 cm
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– (-120/7) / 10 = hi/2
hi = (120/7) / 5
hi = 120/35 cm
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M = hi/ho = 120/70
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Statement
S
– Magnified by 120/70x (1.71x)
A – Upright
L – Behind the mirror (17.14 cm away) T – Virtual

1/f = 1/di+ 1/do M = -di/do = hi/ho

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14. Light travels from air into a diamond (n = 2.42). What is the speed of light in the diamond?
n = c/v
2.42 = 3 x 10^8/v

2.42 v = 3 x 10^8
v = 3 x 10^8 / 2.42 v = 1.23 x 10^8 m/s

SNC2D Exam Review

Balkar Lidher and Suraj Rampure