SNC2D Grade 10 Science Biology Test

Grade 10 Ontario High school science biology academic unit test study guide SNC2D1 SNC2D1 (VERSION B)

Plant/Animal Cells

Cell Structure
Organelles

A cell structure that performs a specific function for the cell

Organelle/Structure Function
Cytoplasm -suspends organelles in cells-water, jelly like
Cell Membrane -supports cell and allows for diffusion within the cell-thin layer around the cell
Nucleus -holding genetic information and performing mitosis-spherical structure
Mitochondria -converts glucose into energy through cellular respiration with oxygen-oval jelly like structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum -transports materials around the cell-3D network of packets extending throughout the cell
Golgi Bodies -collect and remove materials from the cell-expels mucus

-strips and strands, found in stomach

Vacuoles -isolating and removing waste in cell and maintaining pressure-oval structure inside the cell with a thin lining
Only in plant cells
Cell Wall -helps the plant take its shape-sturdy layer containing pores
Vacuoles -isolating and removing waste in cell and maintaining pressure-oval structure inside the cell with a thin lining
Chloroplasts -absorbs light and converts it into energy and stores it there-looks like bricks, green, clots inside

Importance of Cell Division

-cells divide for reproduction, growth, and repair

Growth

-limit to cell size

-this means cells need to divide so that they don’t grow to big

-Importance of cell division: as the cell grows bigger, the ratio of surface area and volume decreases, meaning the cell will not be able to have enough room to allow nutrients go to in to support the cell’s organelles and functions

-Diffusion-passage of chemicals through the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration

-Concentration-is the amount of solute dissolved in a solution per unit of volume

-Osmosis-A fluid (usually water) passing through a semi permeable membrane (such as the cell membrane) from an area of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentration

-waste is removed by the same processes

-if cells grow to big then it is harder for chemicals in water to travel around the cell

Repair

-repair is needed by all organisms to stay alive

-repair of injuries

Reproduction

-there are two types of cell division, asexual and sexual reproduction

Type Description
Asexual -only one parent-common in single celled organisms

-genetic copy

-little diversity

-reproduce by mitosis

Sexual -more diversity-reproduce by meiosis

-2 parents

-1/2 of each parent cell’s genetic information

Mitosis: PMAT

Interphase: when the cell grows to the largest maturity. DNA long and stranded

Prophase: double stranded chromosome, nuclear membrane splits apart. DNA shortened and thickened

Metaphse: double stranded chromosomes line up in the center. Held together with spindle fibres

Anaphase: the double stranded chromosomes are split evenly in half.

Telophase: new nuclear wall forms to divide the two sets of identical chromosomes

Cytokinesis: the process of which the cell organelles, cytoplasm, and membrane into two separate cells. Plant cells create a wall to divide the cells into 2

Chromatid: 2 identical strands of DNA that makes up chromosomes

Centromere: structure that holds the chromatis together as chromosomes

Chromosomes: structure containing the DNA in a cell

Cancer

Group of cells that divide rapidly ignoring the body’s chemical reactions that tell the cell not to divide so often

Caused by mutation in DNA of the cell genetics

-Carcinogens: any substance that can increase the chances of cancer

-Heredity: genetic causes for individuals that are more pre disposed to develop cancers such as colon and breast cancer

Cells that divide quickly causing a tumor that is benign will be not harmful

Cells that divide quickly but are harmful are called malignant cells – cancer tumors

Cancer that spreads are called a metastasis cancer

Detection of cancer include:

-Screening: XRay, MRI, cat scan

-Testing; pap test, psa test, breast self exam

Treatment:

-Chemotherapy=drug, Radiation, surgery to remove the tumor

Comparison:

-Cancer cells are long and irregularly shaped with black/darker colours

Specialized Cells

Stem Cells

-Cells that are able to divide into any type of cell by changing or turning on some of the genes in the DNA to allow some functions

Umbilical cord is a good source of stem cells if kept immediately after birth

Embryonic tissue stem cells are used to create blood only

Cellular Differentiation: directed by DNA to change the way they behave as they get older

Embryonic cells can divide into any other cell while a tissue stem cell can only divide into a certain type of cell

Specialized cells: cells that are specialized at performing a certain task but cannot survive without support of other cells

Hierarchy of Structures in animals

-cells>tissue>organ>organ system for animals and cells>tissues>systems for plants

-an organizational structure, with more complex or important things at the top and simpler or less important things below it

-increasing levels of complexity

Tissue: group of specialized cell that make up a function

Organ: group of specialized tissues

Organ systems: group of organs

-obtain oxygen

-get nutrients

-reduce waste

-adapt

-repair, grow, change

4 main types of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

Epithelial: skin, lining of digestive system

-thin packed cells covering surfaces

-protect dehydration

Connective: bone, tendons, blood

-Various cells and fibers held together by a single organ

-support and insulation

Muscle: muscles, heart, digestive system muscles

-long cells that expand or contract on demand

-movement

Nervous: brain, nervous system

-long thin cells that convey electrical currents to control the body

-sensory, communication, and coordination

Digestive System: takes, digests, and reduce food by creating waste

Digestive Tract and accessory organs

Digestive Tract: esophagus, mouth, s and l intestines, rectum, anus

-covered in epithelial tissue so its smooth;

-Goblet cells produce mucus to protect from acids

-Muscle, nerve tissues

Mouth- provides first mechanical breakdown of food

-saliva breakdown of food by turning starch into sugar

Esophagus: muscular tube that moves food through the tube controlled by nerves

>Peristalsis

Stomach: holds, churns food lined with cells that produces digestive enzymes and acids

-Smooth muscles contract to mix content

Small intestine: most digestion here done with smooth muscles and brings nutrients into blood vessels; water absorbs also occurs.

Big intestine: larger in diameter; mainly absorbs water

Rectum: stores wastes until its time to let it go to the anus to be released

Accessory organs: Liver, pancreas, gall bladder

Liver: produces enzymes for digestion

-gall bladder: produces bile to digest fat

Pancreas: produces insulin to control blood sugar levels

Circulatory System

Blood, Heart, blood vessels

1) Moves nutrients from digestive system through out body

2) Connects to lung to transport oxygen throughout body

3) Carries wastes out of body through kidney

4) Carries CO2 into lungs

5) Regulates body temperature

6) Movement of white blood cells

Blood:

-Red Blood Cells (Erythrocyte)

-Most of all blood in body (50%) w/ no nuclei

-Contains hemoglobin (protein) that transports oxygen throughout body created in bone marrow

-White Blood Cell (Leukocytes)

-Less than 1% of blood

-Fights infections by search and destroy methods

-Destroys by having it engulfed or assigns antibodies to attack

-Platelets

-Keeps blood from clotting (less than 1%)

-becomes ruptured to release proteins to create a web to heal

-Plasma

-50% of blood; proteins rich fluid that allows carrying of blood cells

Heart

-Cardiac Muscle Tissue

-Muscle only in heart; all tissues move at the same time

-Nerve Tissue

-Controls frequency of heartbeat

-Connective Tissue

-To protect heart from friction, collision etc. and made of epithelial cells

Beating of the heart depends on stress, temperature, activity, and health.

Blood Vessels:

-Arteries

-carries blood away from heart

-under high pressure

-large thick walls

-Veins

-carry blood to heart

-low pressure

-thin walls

-have valves to suspend blood

-outer on body

-Capillaries

-tiny and thin, cell in diameter

-o2 and nutrients come in and out capillaries

Circulatory Diseases

Coronary Artery Disease

-plaque gets deposited into vessel and blocks the flow of blood

-Factors: heredity, lifestyle

-Symptoms: dizziness, tiredness

-diagnosed with angiogram

Heart Attack

-arteries completely blocked

-heart receives no oxygen and begins to die

-Symptoms: chest, upper body, abdominal pain, anxiety, nausea, sweating, dizziness, shortness of breath, tiredness.

Respiratory System

Gas Exchange

-Alveoli intakes high concentration of O2 and diffuses them into blood through capillaries

-Takes carbon dioxide out

Breathing

-Diaphragm expands volume in lung to decrease pressure so air will come in to inhale

-Diaphragm closes to decrease volume in lung to exhale the air

Structural Features

-Nose/Mouth, Trachea, branchi, Lung

-Cilia on epithelial tissue brings the mucus upwards

Diseases

Tuberculosis

-bacterial disease that infects lung’s operations and can also move to other places

-Difficult to detect through xray because of confusion with pneumonia and stomach and lung secretions are often taken to confirm

Cancer

-Tumor in lung blocking airflow

-Carcinogen as major cause

Sars

-2003 china outbreak with flu like symptom disease

Muculoskeletal system

-Support body

-provide movement

-provide protection

Tissues

-Bone

-hard dense matrix of Ca, P, and collagen protein

-Canals inside make way for passage of blood and nerves

-Not living

-Ligaments

-bonds bone to bone

-Soft elastic tissue made of collagen

-Cartilage

-Dense connective lubrication tissue

-Disks ins pine

-Specialized cell in a matrix of collagens

Muscle

-Bundle of long cells of muscle fiber protein that causes the tissues to contract

Skeletal: voluntary muscle (attach to bones)

Smooth: involuntary muscle

Cardiac: heart muscle

Tendons: connect muscle to bone

-less elastic

-only contracts and relaxes

Diseases

Osteoporosis

-Loss of bone CA, making it fragile

-Accidents and X-Ray diagnosis

Animals

Most are vertebrates but some are not and have exoskeletons

Nervous system

A dedicated network that allows messages to pass through and enable interactions

Central nervous system: nerve brain and spinal cord (core nervous system)

Peripheral Nervous System: nerves that carry the signal throughout the body

-It sends signal about the inside and outside of body

-It tells the body from the brain about what to do

Neurons conduct signal with electric pulses

Sensory Receptors: receive signals from the outside and tells peripheral system

Stimuli Receptors: Types of signals that sensory receptors will receive

Diseases

-Multiple Sclerosis

-Bacteria destroying the mylin in the nerve tissue when the bacteria damages the immune system

-Physical trama shocks and destroys many of the nerve cells

Plants

-Green, stays in one place

-Exchanges gases

-Requires transportation of nutrients internally

-must reproduce

Heirarchy: Root and shoot system

Dermal tissue: Outer surfaces

Vascule tissue: Transportation

Ground Tissue: all other tissues

Shoot System: conducts photosynthesis and produce flowers for sex

Root System: segment that typically grows underground

Light energy+carbon dioxide+water -> glucose+Oxygen through chlorophyll

Leaves: Provide support, protection, attraction, and reproduction

Meristematic cells: undifferentiated stem cell for plants

Epidermal tissue: flat tissues covering the outer surface of plants

Periderm tissue: tissue on the surfaces of plants that produces bark on stems and roots

Vascular tissue: responsible for conducting material inside the plant

Ground tissue: all other tissues that don’t make up dermal or vascular tissues

Apical Meristem: stem cells at the tips of the plant allowing it to grow taller

Lateral Meristem: stem cells at the side bark areas of the plant allowing it to grow wider

SNC2D1 SNC2D1 SNC2D1 SNC2D1 SNC2D1