SNC2D Grade 10 Academic Science – Exam Notes

 

Thanks, Jennifer!

SNC2D Optics Review

Light
-is energy
-made of light particles called photons
-an electromagnetic wave
-travels at a very high speed
-travels in a straight line
-does not need medium to be transmitted
-properties of particles and EM wave (particle-wave duality) -study of light: OPTICS

Medium: any physical substance through which energy can be transferred
Radiation: method of energy transfer that does not require a medium, the energy travels at speed of light
Visible Light: EM waves that the human eye can see

Electromagnetic Wave
-a wave that has both electric and magnetic parts
-does not require medium
-travels at the speed of light
-use electromagnetic spectrum to classify these light waves
-visible spectrum is the continuous sequence of colours that make up white light
-colour sequence is the order of the rainbow (ROYGBIV, red being lower energy and increasing towards violet)
-lowest to highest energy: radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, UV light, x-rays, gamma rays

Sources of Light
Indirect Light: non-luminous objects reflect luminous object’s light (ex. moon) Direct Light: luminous objects produce their own light (ex. sun)

Types of Light

Incandescent: heated materials produce light (ex. lightbulb, molten metals, stove element) Electrical Discharge: electrical current flowing through gas produces light (lightning, northern lights)
Phosphorescent: materials called ‘phosphors’ absorb UV light from surroundings, STORE IT, emit energy as visible light (ex. glow in the dark toys)

Fluorescent: materials absorb UV light then IMMEDIATELY release it as visible light Chemiluminescence: mixture of chemicals produce light (ex. glow sticks) Bioluminescence: chemiluminescence in living organisms (ex. jelly fish, e.coli, fireflies) Triboluminescence: light produced by friction (ex. lifesavers)

LED (light emitting diode): electrical current flows through semi-conductors (ex. new Christmas lights)

The Ray Model
-light travels in a straight line
-light rays are the direction and straight path of the light
-using light rays to see the path of light is called g eometric optics
-matter can be transparent (see behind clearly), translucent (some light passes, can’t see behind clearly), or opaque (no light passes, matter absorbs light)

Reflection
-the bouncing back of light from any surface

Images: a reproduction of an object through the use of light
Mirror: any polished surface reflecting an image (has two parts:glass/reflective surface and reflective thin film/opaque side)
Plane: flat
Incident Ray: incoming ray that strikes the surface
Reflected Ray: ray that bounces off reflective surface
Normal: line perpendicular (90 degrees) to the mirror’s surface
Angle of Incidence: angle between incident ray and normal
Angle of Reflection: angle between normal and reflected ray

Laws of Reflection
1. The angle of incidence EQUALS the angle of reflection
2. The incident ray, reflected ray, and the normal all lie on the same plane

Specular Reflection:
-reflection on smooth shiny surface
-series of parallel rays hit the surface, their reflected rays are also parallel

Diffuse Reflection:
-light shines on surface that is not perfectly flat -many incident rays and angles of incidence -reflected rays are also different

Virtual Image: an image formed by light coming from an apparent light source; light is not arriving at or coming from the actual image location; cannot be projected on a screen

Images in Plane Mirrors
-use the laws of reflection
-distance from object to mirror is same as distance from image to mirror (image is located at same distance but reversed)
-object-image line is perpendicular to the mirror surface
-extrapolate the rays of light from the eye
-image is flipped horizontally and is in reverse order
-this is called LATERAL INVERSION (180 degree rotation of an object)

Properties of an Image
SALT
S : size of image (compared to object: same, smaller, larger)
A : attitude of image (orientation compared to object: upright, inverted, laterally inverted L : location of image

T : type of image; virtual, real

Centre of Curvature (C): centre of the sphere whose surface forms the mirror
Principal Axis: line going through the centre of curvature and the centre of the mirror
Vertex (V): point where the principal axis intersects the mirror
Focus (F): the single point where all light rays parallel to the principal axis will be reflected off the mirror

Concave Mirror (converging)
-caves you in; inner surface/centre of mirror bulges away from you

Concave Mirror Rules:

  1. Any ray travelling parallel to the principal axis is reflected through the focal point

    ( STRAIGHT AND “F”)

  2. Any ray travelling through the focal point (F) is reflected parallel to the principal axis ( “F”

    AND STRAIGHT)

  3. Any ray travelling through the centre of curvature (C) is reflected back through the centre

    of curvature ( THROUGH “C”)

Converging/Concave Mirrors

Object

Image

Location

Size

Attitude

Location

Type

beyond C

smaller

inverted

between C and F

real

at C

same size

inverted

at C

real

between C and F

larger

inverted

beyond C

real

at F

no image

no image

no image

no image

inside F

larger

upright

behind mirror

virtual

Convex Mirrors (Diverging)
-sticks out at you, diverges away
-reflection is from the outer surface and the centre of the mirror bulges towards you

Same rules as Concave Mirrors 1. STRAIGHT AND “F” 2. “F” AND STRAIGHT 3. THROUGH “C”

Focus (F) and centre of curvature (C) is now behind the mirror as the VIRTUAL FOCUS

-brain extrapolates the rays behind the mirror, where they appear to converge
THE REFLECTED RAY CONTINUES BEHIND THE MIRROR AS A DOTTED LINE

IMAGE IS ALWAYS UPRIGHT, SMALLER, BEHIND THE MIRROR, VIRTUAL

Refraction
-happens between 2 media/materials
-light bends when it travels from one material into another

Angle of refraction: the angle between refracted ray and the normal

Rules for Refraction

  1. Incident ray, refracted ray , and normal all lie on the same plane-incident and refracted ray

    are on opposite sides of the line that separates the two media

  2. Light bends TOWARDS the normal when the speed of light in the second medium

    DECREASES

  3. Light bends AWAY from the normal when the speed of light in the second medium

    INCREASES

Index of Refraction

-the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of that medium -Light travels the fastest in a vacuum [3.00×108 ]
-Mediums slow down light because it contains higher index of refraction

v = speed of light in given medium c = speed of light in vacuum
n = index of refraction

N=C/V

– index of refraction can also be calculated using the sines of the angles: N=SIN<i/SIN<R

G iven→c=? v=? n=? R equired → What to define? A nalyze → Equation
S olve → Solve and answer S olution → Statement?

The Critical Angle
-angle of incidence that results in an angle of refraction of 90 degrees
-lies at 90 degrees or along the boundary between the two media
-the angle of incidence beyond which rays of light passing through a denser medium to a surface of a less dense medium are no longer refracted but totally reflected
-when the angle of incidence increases past the critical angle, the refracted ray will no longer exit the medium and it will reflect into the medium (total internal reflection)

Total Internal Reflection
-situation when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle -occurs when:

  1. light is travelling more slowly in the first medium than the second
  2. the angle of incidence is large enough that no refraction occurs in the second medium,

    instead, the ray is reflected back into the first medium

-n(1) must be greater than n(2)
-refracted ray bends away from normal
-eventually there is no refracted ray and only reflection

Lenses
-involve principle of refraction: light is refracted at the air to glass surface, travels through the lens and is then refracted again in the second air lens surface on the other side

-different lenses are made with the curvature of the lens
-can be drawn using ray diagrams or using the thin lens formula

Optical Centre (O): point at the exact centre of the lens
Principle Focus (F): point on the principle axis of a lens where the light rays parallel converge after refraction
Secondary Focus (F’): equidistant to the principle focus bubt on the other side of the lens

Converging Lens : parallel light rays converge through a single point after refraction or the light, THICKEST IN THE MIDDLE, THINNEST AT THE EDGE

F’ IS ON THE LEFT SIDE, SAME SIDE AS LIGHT SOURCE

Locating for Converging Lens & Diverging Lens -STRAIGHT AND F
-F’ AND STRAIGHT
-THROUGH O

Diverging Lens: parallel light rays diverge after refraction from the lens, THINNEST IN MIDDLE, THICKEST AT THE EDGE

F IS ON THE LEFT SIDE, SAME SIDE AS ORIGIN
LIGHT RAYS BEING REFRACTED THROUGH THE LENS ARE CALLED EMERGENT RAYS

Thin Lens Equation (where the image is) f = focal length
d o = distance of the object
d i = distance of the image

Magnification Equation (size of image) m = magnification
h i = height of image
h o = height of object

Variable

Positive

Negative

d o (object distance)

always

never

d i (image distance)

real image (opposite side of lens)

virtual image (same side as lens)

h o (object height)

when upright/upward

when inverted/downward

h i (image height)

when upright/upward

when inverted/downward

f (focal length)

converging lens

diverging lens

M (magnification)

upright image

inverted image

Human Eye

Pupil: hole where light enters the eye
Iris: coloured ring of muscles that control the amount of light entering your eye by dilating or constricting your pupil
Cornea: cover on your eye that acts like lenses, directly over iris

Lens: lens is an actual hard lens, focuses light as it passes through your pupil
Retina: made of light sensitive cells called photoreceptors, convert light to electrical signal transmitted to brain
Photoreceptors: rods and cones, detect light in the eye and translates it to nerve signals sent to the brain
Optic Nerve: carries signals from retina to the brain to see
Sclera: eye cover
Vitreous Humor: white part of the eye, fluid filled sac
Ciliary Body: muscles that control the shape of the lens, we focus by ACCOMMODATION: to see objects that are closer our lens must get smaller and fatter, to see far our lens must be taller and

thinner

*The cornea and lens that focus the light entering our eyes produces an INVERTED image on our retina. The brain takes the signal information and translates it to an UPRIGHT image that we can see*

Hyperopia (far-sightedness)
-you can’t focus on near objects but can focus on far objects
-light rays would be focused on a spot behind the retina which is impossible so images become closer and blurry -CONVERGING lenses help correct the vision as it will cause the image to focus on our retina, bends light rays so image will focus on retina

Myopia (near-sightedness)
-you can’t focus on far objects but can focus on near objects
-light rays would be focused on a spot in front of the retina meaning the rays are diverging by the time they hit the retina

-DIVERGING lens can help correct vision as it will cause image to focus on our retina. bends light rays to focus on retina

Presbyopia
-age related vision impairment due to loss of ye elasticity from ciliary body, lens stiffens and unable to accommodate easily
-images form behind the retina, difficult to focus on nearby objects

Contact Lenses
-placed on cornea of eye
-shaped to correct near-sightedness or for cosmetics

Colour Blindness
-’colour normal’ see images as combinations of RGB light
-’colour deficient’ have inactive rods and cones of a particular sensitivity for RGB light

Chemistry Study Notes

Element: pure substance that cannot be broken down
Period: row of elements on periodic table (SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRON SHELLS) Group: column of elements in periodic table with similar properties (SAME NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS)
Alkali metals: the elements in the first column, most reactive (group 1)
Alkaline earth metals : the elements in the second column, second most reactive (group 2) Halogens: elements in the seventeenth column, most reactive nonmetals (group 17)
Noble gases: elements in the eighteenth column, least reactive (group 18)
Properties of metal: metallic, conductive, malleable, solid
Properties of nonmetals: solid, gas, or liquid, brittle, dull, insulators
Protons: positive, in nucleus, atomic number
Electrons : negative, orbiting around nucleus, atomic number
Neutrons: neutral, in nucleus, rounded atomic mass minus atomic number
Atoms: electrically neutral particle
Ions:
-charged particle that loses or gains electrons to have full outer orbit
-metals lose electrons to become positively charged CATIONS
-nonmetals gain electrons to become negatively charged ANIONS

Ionic compounds: composed of anions and cations, conduct electricity and dissolve in water, metal loses electron while nonmetal gains
Ionic bond: attraction of two oppositely charged ions, form between cation and anion, transfer or electrons

Covalent bond: sharing of electrons between two nonmetals, forms a molecule
Molecular compounds: composed of molecules
Diatomic particles: elements that share a pair of electrons with the same element to reach stable octet (HOFBrINCl)

Naming:

Two Non-Metals (Molecular Binary Compounds): -use prefix system:
1=mono 4=tetra 7=hepta 10:deca
2=di 5=penta 8=octa

3=tri 6=hexa 9=nona
-elements are written in order with the last element having an “ide” ending -ex: N2O4: DInitrogen TETRAoxide
-NO REDUCING
-IF FIRST ELEMENT ONLY HAS ONE, DO NOT USE “MONO”

One Metal and One Non-Metal (Ionic Binary Compounds):

-trend in charge numbers:
I II III IV V VI VII
+1 +2 +3 -/+4 -3 -2 -1
-for formula, write symbol for each element, metal first -write charge numbers as subscripts
-switch the charge numbers
-check if they can be REDUCED
-ex. Ba2+, S2-; Ba2S2; BaS
-ex. Al2O3: aluminum oxide

Transition Metals (Multiple Charge Number Ionic Compounds)
-metal has two or more charges (ex. Mercury)
-use STOCK SYSTEM to show charge number of metal then the nonmetal ending in “ide”
-do reverse-switcheroo to with the nonmetal and metal to determine which charge the metal has -ex. copper (II) fluoride is CuF2
-NO STOCK SYSTEM IF ELEMENT HAS ONLY 1 CHARGE (ex. Zn is only 2+)

Polyatomic Ionic Compounds: Hydroxide: OH –
Nitrate: NO 3-
Chlorate: ClO 3-

Carbonate: (CO 3 ) 2- Sulphate: (SO 4 ) 2- Phosphate: (PO 4 ) 3- Ammonium: NH 4+

-keep polyatomic compounds as one unit, do not break them apart
-use reverse switcheroo
-anion is named according to polyatomic ion rather than the names of the individual elements -ex. Mg 2+ , (NO 3 )-; Mg 1 (NO 3 ) 2 ; Mg(NO 3 ) 2

Law of Conservation of Mass
-in any given chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products, no new atoms are created and no atoms disappear
-reason why we balance chemical equations

Balancing Equations
-use coefficients in front of elements to balance the number of elements of both sides of the equation
-start by balancing the elements that occur only once on each side
-keep polyatomic ions together as 1 unit
-change “H2O” to “HOH” (one hydrogen, one hydroxide)
-have list of atom/element count

Types of Reactions

Synthesis
-two simple reactants combine to make a larger more complex product
– A+B=AB
-ex. zinc+sulphur=zinc sulfide (Zn+S= ZnS)
*sometimes in a reaction of aqueous reactants, one of the products is insoluble and appears in the solution as precipitate*

Decomposition
-large compounds are broken down into two smaller compounds of elements – AB=A+B
-ex. energy+water= hydrogen+oxygen (2H20= 2H2+O2)

Single Displacement
-one element replaces or displaces an element in a compound – A+BC= AC+B
-ex. copper+silver nitrate= copper(II) nitrate+silver

Double Displacement

–two elements in different compounds trade places

– AB+CD= AD+BC +-+-+–+

Complete Combustion
-oxygen is plentiful
-ONLY PRODUCTS: CO 2 , H 2 O
-hydrocarbon: any compound with H2, C, or O2 -ex. methane+oxygen= carbon dioxide+water -CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O

Incomplete Combustion
-oxygen is limited
-ONLY PRODUCTS: C, CO, CO2, H2O
-ex. butane+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water+carbon monoxide+carbon (soot) -C4H10+5O2= 2CO2+5H2O+CO+C

-Combustion reactions are always synthesis (element+oxygen=oxide) – exothermic: releases heat
– endothermic: absorbs heat

Corrosion : breakdown of metal resulting from reactions with chemicals from the environment

ACIDS (H):
-neutralizes bases
-all acids have “hydro” in front
-are molecular
-tastes sour
-turns blue litmus paper red
-typically react with metals to produce hydrogen

-react with carbonate to produce CO2 gas
-conducts electricity (electrolytes)
-solution made of ions (electrolytes) can conduct electricity
-all acids have at least one hydrogen ion where they dissolve in water
-chemical formula always begins with ‘h’ and is (aq)
-BINARY ACIDS: CONTAIN 2 ELEMENTS (HF, HBr, HCl, H2S)
-OXYACIDS: HAS POLYATOMIC IONS (HC2H3O2, HNO3, H2CO3, H2SO4, H3PO4)
-THE NUMBER OF HYDROGENS IN THE ACID SHOWN IS EQUIVALENT TO THE VALUE OF THE CHARGE ON THE POLYATOMIC ION

BASES (OH):
-are ionic
-metal oxides react with water to form a base
-conduct electricity
-tastes bitter
-feels slippery
-changes red litmus paper blue
-are electrolytes but are made of ions
many bases contain hydroxide or carbonate ions
ex. NaOH, Ca(OH)2, NH4OH, Mg(OH)2, AL(OH)3, NaHCO3

Acid-Base Indicators
-natural or synthetic materials change colour to detect if it is basic or acidic

The pH Scale
-numerical scale from 0-14
-pH of 7 is neutral (ex, water)
-pH of 0-7 is more acidic
-pH of 7-14 is more basic
-acids form H+ ions in a solution
-bases have more OH than H+ which gives them their basic properties
-concentration of H+ ions determines how acidic or basic a solution is, where it is on the pH (power of hydrogen)

Neutralization
-occurs when acid and base are mixed
-product is a solution that is close to or is neutral (pH of 7) -PRODUCTS: WATER AND SALT (ANY IONIC COMPOUND) -SPECIFIC TYPE OF DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION

Indicator

Colour in Acid

Colour in Base

Bromothymol Blue

Yellow

Blue

Phenolphthalein

Colourless

Magenta/Pink

Litmus

Red

Blue

*NON-METAL OXIDES (NMOA) MIX WITH WATER TO PRODUCE ACID* *METAL OXIDE (MOB) MIX WITH WATER TO PRODUCE BASE*

Acid Precipitation
-emission of NO x (NO 2 and NO, vehicle engines) and SO 2 (burning fossil fuels) combine with water to form acids in the environment
-freshwater is slightly acidic because of CO2
-harms fragile organisms and travels up food chain
-goes into soils and washes away essential metal ions
-weakens trees
-damage to steel structures, buildings, and monuments

Buffering
-buffering capacity: substance’s ability to resist changes in the pH level -limestone in soil has high buffering capacity

Scrubbers
-combustion gases fed through scrubber tower
-gasses showered through paste mixture of limestone and water
-limestone paste absorbs combustion gasses and convert it to CaSO3
-remaining gasses continue up scrubber tower and are released
-CaSO3 particles are removed when they fall down to bottom of the scrubber and can be converted to gypsum

SNC2D Biology Review

Cell Theory:
-all living things are made up of at least one or more cells and their products -the cell is the simplest unit that can carry out life processes
-all cells come from other cells; they do not come from non-living matter

Types of Cells:

Prokaryotic :
-single celled life forms -simple, primitive cells -no nucleus or organelles -ex. bacteria and archaea

Eukaryotic
-single or multicellular organisms
-more complex and larger
-do have nucleus and organelles
-make up multicellular organisms like plants, fungi

Limitations of Cell Size
-as a cell grows bigger, the ratio or the area and volume decrease meaning the cell will not have enough room for nutrients
-the cell membrane must be large enough to support the cell volume

Organelles

Cytoplasm
-suspends organelles -fluid,jelly, liquid filling

Cell Membrane
-supports cell
allows diffusions of unwanted substances -semi-permeable membrane

Nucleus
-spherical
-contains all DNA and genetic info

Mitochondria
-powerhouse of cell
-makes energy available for the cell -converts glucose to energy

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-3-D network of branching tubes that transport materials throughout the cell

Golgi Body (Apparatus)
-secretes mucus
-collects and removes unwanted materials -has a stacked structure like pancake

Vacuole
-contains substances, isolates and removes waste, maintains internal fluid pressure

Cell Wall (plants)
-helps plant hold its shape
-found outside the cell membrane

Big Vacuole (plants)
-full of water to keep stem and leaves firm -isolates and removes waste

Chloroplast
-absorbs light for photosynthesis to occur -has chlorophyll that gives green colour

Cell Division
-growth (cells can’t grow too big) -repair
reproduction (sexual and asexual)

The Cell Cycle
-eukaryotic cells grow and divide

Interphase
-cell performs normal functions

-genetic material and DNA copied -DNA is doubled

Mitosis: Prophase
-long strands of DNA condense into compact form called chromosome -DNA shortened and thickened
-nuclear membrane splits

Mitosis: Metaphase
-chromosomes line up in centre of the cell, held by spindle fibres in order for mitosis to continue

Mitosis: Anaphase
-centromere splits and sister chromatids separate -appeared to be pulled apart
-daughter chromosomes move to opposite ends of cell

Mitosis: Telophase
-new nuclear membrane forms
-daughter chromosomes unwind and stretch out to become stringy masses -two nucleis

Cytokinesis
-final stage
-organelles divide producing two identical daughter cells -in plants, plate develops between two cells called cell wall -in animals, cell membrane is pinched off in the centre

Chromatid: half of a chromosome
Chromosome: organized bundle of DNA
Chromatin: messy bundle of DNA
Centromere: holds two chromatids together to create a chromosome
Spindle Fibres: controls the movement of chromosomes, are scaffolding for the cell, doesn’t remain fixed, originate from the centrioles

Cancer
-cell division gone wrong
-cells divide rapidly ignoring the body’s chemical reactions telling cell not to divide -changes in DNA that controls cell cycle

Tumours
Benign:
-stays together, no serious effects to surrounding tissue -not cancerous

Malignant:
-interferes with functions of neighbouring cells -cancerous

Metastasis:
-cancer cells break away from the tumour to settle into other parts of the body -cancerous

Carcinogens
-factors that can cause mutation (random change in DNA), leading to cancer -ex: tobacco smoke, radiation, viruses, chemicals in plastics
-some cancers have a genetic/hereditary link

Diagnosing Cancer Imaging
-endoscopy (fibre optics)

-x-ray (viewing bones and lungs)
-ultrasound (sound waves for soft tissue view)
-CT scan (x-rays at different angles)
-MRI (radio waves and magnetic field generate images)

Examining Cells
-biopsy (sample of cells), viewed with microscope and genetic tests

Treating Cancer
Oncologist
-specializing in cancer medicine

Surgery
-surgically removing cancerous cells

Chemotherapy
-using drugs to travel through body and target different cells -shrink or slow the growth of tumour
-linked with surgery

Radiation
-cancer cells damaged easily by ionizing radiation -daughter cells are damaged and cannot divide further

Biophotonics
-using beams of light to detect cancer early and treat

Hierarchy: organizational structure with more complex things at top and simpler things below it

Organization of Organism
1. Cell (ex. heart muscle cell)
2. Tissue (collection of similar cells to perform particular but limited function. ex. heart

muscle tissue)
3. Organ (structure composed of different tissues to perform complex function. ex. heart)
4. Organ System (system of one or more organs and structures that work together for a major

body function. ex. digestion, circulatory)

Tissues

Epithelial
-thin sheets of tightly packed cells that covers body surfaces and lines internal organs -protection from dehydration
-ex. skin, lining of digestive system

Connective
-specialized tissue that provides support and protection for various parts of the body -support and insulation
-ex. bones, tendons, blood

Muscle
-specialized tissue containing proteins that can contract and enable body movement -ex. heart, muscles that make bones move

Nerve
-specialized tissue that can conduct electrical signals from one part of the body to another -sensory, communication, coordination
-ex. brain, nerves in sensory organs

Cellular Differentiation :
-process where a cell becomes specialized to perform specific function -an animal cell can differentiate into many cells called stem cells

Stem Cells: an undifferentiated cell that can divide to form specialized cells
Embryonic Stem Cells : can differentiate into any kind of cell
Tissue Stem Cells: exist within specialized tissue, only able to differentiate into certain types of cells

Skeleton
-supports and protects body
-provides structure
-anchor for muscles
-store calcium and minerals
-bone marrow that produces red and white blood cells -allows movement
-consists of bones, ligaments, cartilage

Ligaments: connects bone to bone, holds bones together at joints
Cartilage: dense connective tissue that provides support (ex. ear, nose)

Tendon: less elastic than ligaments, connect muscle to bones

Spine: central support for body, made of vertebrae Hands & Feet: bones with flexibility (hands: carpals, metacarpals, phalanges; feet: tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges)

Ribs : protect heart and lungs
Hips & Legs: for movement and posture (bones are tibia, fibula, femur, patella) Arms: flexibility (ulna, radius, humerus, clavicle, scapula)

Types of Bones
Long: longer than wide (ex. femur, humerus)
Short: about as long as wide (ex. carpals, tarsals)
Flat: flat plates (ex. scapula, sternum)
Irregular: non-uniform shape (ex. mandible, vertebrae) Sesamoid: embedded in tendon (patella)

Axial Skeleton
-skull bones, vertebrae, ribs, sternum

Appendicular Skeleton
-bones of pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, upper and lower limbs

Joints

Hinge: flexion, extension (ex elbow/knee)
Pivot: pivot, turn, rotate, move (ex. top of neck)
Ball and Socket: flexion, internal/external rotation (ex. shoulder, hip) Saddle: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction (ex. thumb)

Muscles
-composed of muscle fibres arranged in bundles
-proteins cause contraction
-skeletal muscle: under voluntary control
-smooth muscle: involuntary (ex. intestines)
-cardiac muscle: located in heart
-nerve impulses causes muscles to contract and move bones -muscles can pull but not push, WORK IN PAIRS

Systems
Digestive: system that digests food and excretes waste (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gall bladder)
Circulatory: transports oxygen and nutrients throughout the body and carries away waste (heart, blood, blood vessels)
Respiratory: provides oxygen for the body and allows for CO2 to leave (nose, mouth, bronchi, trachea, lungs)
Musculoskeletal: supports body, supports delicate organs, allows movement (bones and skeletal muscle)
Nervous: senses the environment and coordinates responses (brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves) Endocrine: secretes hormones to circulatory system (glands)
Urinary: eliminates waste and regulates blood and liquid in body (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra)
Integumentary: protects body from damage (skin and its appendages like nails and hair) Reproductive: for sexual reproduction (sex organs)

Interactions of Systems

Digestive and Circulatory
-digestive breaks down food into small molecules that pass through the walls of the digestive tract -without the circulatory system, only tissues next to the digestive tract will receive the nutrients -circulatory provides transportation of nutrients all around the body
ex. capillaries surround digestive tract to carry blood that absorbs the nutrients

Musculoskeletal and Respiratory
-skeletal muscle tissue uses oxygen and nutrients to move
-every muscle contraction, the rate of cellular respiration increases

-to fuel the active system, circulatory must deliver a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients with the respiratory system working together to remove CO2 waste

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
-2 parents and a unique offspring
-responsible for variation between individuals
-meiosis
-two haploid cells (sexcells/gametes) combine to reproduce a diploid cell (eventually becoming unique offspring)

Diploid (2): cell or organism with 2 sets of chromosomes, 1 from each parent (46 chromosomes) Haploid (1): cell or organism (sex cells) has half the number of chromosomes (23 chromosomes)

Gametes
-haploid male/female sex cell -egg/sperm cell
-produced through meiosis

SEQUENCE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

  1. Meiosis between male and female produces haploid gametes (egg/sperm) in gonads

    (ovaries, testes)

  2. Male gamete combines with female gamete
  3. A zygote (diploid cell formed by combination of two gametes) is produced then further

    developed into an e mbryo (multicellular diploid eukaryotic cell in earliest stages of

    development)

  4. Embryo develops into a mature and unique offspring from mitosis and cell division.

Development of Sperm
1. Hormones signal sperm to develop in the seminiferous tubules in the testes .
2. Epididymus receives sperm and stores it for several days
3. Ejaculation causes sperm to forcefully expel from the tale of the epididymus into the vas

deferrens
4. Seminal vesicles/ prostate: secretions are added to sperm, sperm becomes semen
5. Semen passes through urethra and is ejaculated through the far end of the u rethra

Development & Pathway of Egg
1. Egg (ovum) is released into the ovary (follicle)
2. Follicle matures and releases egg into fallopian tubes
3. If fertilized. egg (zygote) remains in fallopian tubes then develops into a cluster of cells,

implanting in the uterus for development.

Plants
-multicellular organisms
-eukaryotic (have nucleus and organelles)
-immobile
-autotrophic
-can reproduce sexually and asexually
-must exchange gasses, absorb water and nutrients to transport as food

-do not need complex systems to hunt for their food

Shoot System
-system in flowering plant that is specialized to photosynthesize and reproduce
-consists of:
Leaf: main photosynthetic organ, organelles in leaf have chloroplasts for photosynthesis, have been adapted for protection, reproduction, and chloroplasts
Stem: main function is to support leaves and flowers, connects leaves to roots, transports sugar from leaves to roots, transports water and minerals and nutrients from the roots to the leaves Flower: designed for sexual reproduction, can be male/female/both, pollination occurs through wing, insects, birds, etc.

Root System
-system in flowering plant that anchors plant, absorbs water and minerals, stores food -water and nutrients are sent up to leaves through xylem
Fibrous Roots (monocots)
-adapted to increase surface area for absorption
-shallow depth in soil
-ex. grass, lilies

Tap Roots (dicots)
-adapted to anchor plants and for storage -grows deeper into the soil
-ex. carrot, tree, dandelion

Plant Tissues
Dermal Tissue
-forms outer layer of plant (epidermis) for protection
-epidermal leaf cells produce waterproof cuticle which stops intruders
-cuticle: layer of wax on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf that blocks the diffusion of water and gasses

Vascular Tissue
-for circulation of minerals, nutrients, water
1. XYLEM
-transports water and dissolved materials from the roots up to the leaves -elongated cells join to make tubes

2. PHLOEM
-transports products of photosynthesis all around the plant -elongated cell like tubes remain alive at maturity

Ground Tissue
-the “filler” located between the dermal and vascular tissue
-performs functions of photosynthesis, food and water storage, and structural support

Periderm tissue: tissue on the surface of a plant that produces bark on stems and roots Epidermal tissue: thin layer of cells covering all non-woody surfaces of the plant

Meristematic Cell: an undifferentiated plant cell that can differentiate to form specialized cells, similar to animal stem cells, ONLY PLANT CELL THAT UNDERGOES MITOSIS

*purpose of cell division in cells: grow in size, shape, perform functions, have plants grow and reproduce through meiosis*

Apical Meristem: undifferentiated cell at tips of plant’s shoots and roots; cells that divide and enable the plant to grow longer/taller and develop into specialized tissues

Lateral Meristem: undifferentiated cell under the bark in the stems and roots of woody plants; cells that divide and enable the plant to grow wider and develop specialized tissues in the stem

Tissues working together
-stem, leaf, and flower all work together to do its main job of feeding itself (photosynthesis)

Absorbing light and gasses
– xylem in vascular tissue brings the water to mesophyll tissues of the leaf and the guard cells of the stomata allow for CO2 to enter
-water and CO2 go through photosynthesis in the chloroplasts of the leaves
-the glucose made from photosynthesis transfers to the vascular bundle/vein and into the phloem to send the food for the roots, meristem tissue, and fruit
– guard cells controlling stomatal pore a re responsible for gas exchange
-guard cells open and close to allow CO2 in when photosynthesis can occur and let O2 out

Palisade Layer
-layer of tall, closely packed cells containing chloroplasts -just below the upper surface of the leaf

-type of ground tissue

Spongy Mesophyll
-under the palisade layer of the leaf
– circulates air and exchange of gas
-a region of loosely packed cells containing chloroplasts -in the middle of the leaf
-type of ground tissue

Guard Cells
-one pair of special cells in the epidermis (epidermal tissue) -surrounds the stomata to let gas in

Stomate (plural stomata)
-an opening in the surface of a leaf that allows for exchange of gasses -surrounded by two guard cells

Vegetative Reproduction
-asexual reproduction (cloning)
-process where a plant produces a genetically identical offspring from its roots or shoots
-ex. strawberries sent long ‘runners’ that can grow into new roots using the meristems in the tips of these ‘runners’