SNC1D Grade 9 Science Exam

Final Exam Study Notes Grade 9 Academic

Biology-Reproduction

Phases of Mitosis

Prophase

  • Chromosomes duplicate
  • Nuclear membrane splits

Metaphase

  • The double stranded chromosomes are lined up in the center
  • Held using spindle fibres

Anaphase

  • The chromosomes split equally apart towards each poles of the cell

Telophase

  • The chromosomes become totally apart
  • The cell’s nuclear membrane reforms

Cytokinesis

  • The process of splitting nuclear material equally in cell division

Meiosis

  • The process of creating sex cells that have half the amount of chromosomes that mitosis cells do

Cell Theory

  • All living things are made up of cells
  • All cells come from pre existing cells
  • Cells are the basic functional units of life

Cell inhibition lab

  • Cell inhibiting substances stops or dramatically slows down mitosis and cell division
  • The sprouts treated with cell inhibiting substances grew slower than the control
  • Applications: cancer treatment, weed removal, hair removal

Asexual vs sexual reproduction in changing environments

  • Advantages
    • Sexual – diversity
    • Asexual- no partner, fast reproduction
  • Disadvantages
    • Sexual- takes too much time to reproduce
      • Needs a partner
    • Asexual- Low diversity

Asexual reproductive strategies

  • Binary Fission
    • Single celled organism divide into 2 cells of the equal size
  • Budding
    • Single cell grows and breaks off to become a mature creature
  • Fragmentation
    • Part breaks off and becomes a mature creature
  • Spore Formation
    • Creates identical but smaller cells

Sexual reproductive strategies

  • Conjugation: Sexual reproduction involving 2 bacteria coming into contact with each other and forming an exchange of genetic information
  • Hermaphrodites: organisms with both male and female reproductive organs. Any 2 hermaphrodites can exchange genetic information

Plant reproduction

  • Pollination
    • Pollen floats by wind or carried by insects
    • Pollen lands on stigma
      • Stigma: Absorbs the pollen and sends it through the style and into the ovaries
    • Goes down the style
      • Style: Vertical tube where the pollen is transported down to the ovaries
    • Goes to ovary and fertilizes the egg
      • Ovary: Houses and fertilizes the egg
    • Anther and filament produces the pollen
      • Anther: Houses the pollen
      • Filament: Transports nutrients and pollen into the anthers
  • Male plants do not have ovaries

Plants

Human Reproductive Organs

  • Female reproductive organs

Reproductive Technology

  • GMF- process of changing the genetic sequence of plants in order for more advantage economically and plant wise for the farmer

Chemistry- Matter

Chemical VS Physical Properties

  • Chemical Properties
    • Reactions with acid
    • Combustibility
  • Physical Properties
    • Colour
    • Texture
    • Odour
    • Taste
    • Lustre
    • Clarity
    • Ductility – the ability to be pulled into wires
    • Malleability- the ability to be pushed or hammered into different shapes

Chemical VS Physical Changes

  • Chemical
    • Permanent change in colour
    • Gas or bubbles form
    • Precipitate forms in liquid
    • Light or heat is absorbed or released
    • Not reversible
  • Physical
    • Changes in state
    • Changes in shape
    • Dissolve
    • Reversible

WHMIS- Workplace Hazardous Material Information System

Classifying Matter

  • Pure Substance: One substance
  • Solution: a homogenous mixture that looks like one
  • Mixture: a heterogeneous mixture that looks as though as it is made of multiple parts
  • Compounds: a pure substance made of one or more elements

Pure Substance vs. Compound

  • Pure substance is made of one element and one substance, compound is made up of one or more elements.

Heterogeneous VS Homogenous

  • Heterogenous- Looks like it is made up of more than one part
  • Homogenous- Looks like one part

Subatomic Particles

  • Protons, Neutrons, Electrions
  • ION: an atom that has become charged by gaining or losing one or more electron to fill its outer orbital

Valence Electron

  • The number of electrons in the outer orbital

Organizing elements

  • Alkali Metals
    • Very reactive
    • Metallic
    • 1 valence electron
    • Opaque
  • Alkali Earth Metals
    • 2 Valence electrons
    • Found on earth
    • Metallic
    • Opaque
    • Solid
  • Halogens
    • Non reactive non metal
    • 7 valence electron
    • Gas
    • Translucent or transparent
  • Noble Gases
    • Very stable
    • Gas
    • Translucent
    • 8 valence electrons

Density

  • D=M/V

Isotopes

  • Elements with the same number of protons but different mass due to different number of neutrons

Physics- Electricity

Static Electricity

  • Electricity that does not move from where it was charged
  • Charging
    • Friction
    • Contact
    • Induction

Laws of electric charges

  • Like charges repel
  • Unlike charges attract

Insulators vs. Conductors

  • Insulator: a material that blocks electricity from passing
    • Does not allow electrons to flow from one atom to another
  • Conductor: any substance that allows electrons to move freely from one atom to another

Inducted Charge Separation- Explained in diagrams

Current Electricity

  • Current electricity flows while static electricity does not

Circuit diagrams

  • Battery
  • Loads
    • Resistor
    • Light bulb
  • Switch
  • Ammeter
  • Voltmeter

Series Circuit

  • Only one path for the electrons to flow

Parallel Circuit

  • More than one path for the electrons to flow

Voltmeters

  • Measures potential difference
  • Potential difference is the amount of energy a batter has to push the electrons across a circuit
  • Attached in PARRALELL
  • SI unit: V – Volt

Ammeter

  • Measures current
  • Current is how much electrons are flowing through a circuit
  • Attached in series
  • SI unit: A – Amperes

Ohm’s Law

  • V=IxR
  • Graph of voltage vs. current, resistance is voltage over current
  • States that the resistance is always proportional to the voltage and current

Ohmic Resistors

  • Any load that will not change the resistance regardless of change in current or voltage

Series VS Parallel circuits

  • Series
    • Vtotal=V1+v2+v3…
    • Itotal=I1=I2=I3…
    • Rtotal=R1+R2+R3…
  • Parallel
    • Vtotal=V1=V2=V3…
    • Itotal=I1+I2+I3…
    • Rtotal= 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3…

Electrical energy

  • Energy that is given off through electric charges
  • Energy: anything that allows us to move.
  • E=IxTxdeltaT
  • E=PxT

Electrical Power

  • The rate at which electrical energy is being used
  • P=E/T
  • P=VxT

Percentage Efficiency

  • %efficiency=(output energy/Input energy) x 100%

Astronomy

Big Bang Theory

  1. At time zero, all matter was packed into an extremely dense small space
  2. Created pressure, energy, and heat
  3. Huge explosion, Big Bang, occurred causing material to erupt outwards from “the centre of the universe”. Today, the universe is still expanding.

Light Year

  • Measures the amount of distance traveled by light in 1 year. Used to measure distances in space

Planets

  • Inner planets
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars
  • Outer planets
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Neptune
  • Ringed planets
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Neptune

White Dwarf Star

  • The death of a small star
  • Small, hot, dense, white stars