SNC1D Grade 9 Science Chemistry Test

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FULLY FORMATTED PDF OF THIS NOTE WITH DIAGRAMS

PDF PASSWORD: fromonstudynotes.com

 

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties – Definition of

page1image1480

– Definition of any property used to characterize matter and energy and their interactions

page1image2608

– Examples of physical properties include mass, density, boiling point, temperature, and volume.

page1image3696

Physical Change

page1image4344

– Definition of any change that can be reversed

page1image5272

– Examples of physical change include melting ice, crushing can, breaking glass, etc.

a property or characteristic of a substance that is observed during a reaction in

which the chemical composition or

identity

of the substance is changed

– Examples of chemical properties may include reactivity with other chemicals, toxicity, coordination number, flammability, and PH, heat of combustion, smell, rusting, oxidation states, chemical stability, and types of chemical bonds that will form

Chemical Change
– Definition of any change that cannot be reversed
– Examples consist of baking, rusting metal, cooking, etc.
– Evidence includes bubbles, precipitate, color, temperature, light, volume, conductivity, boiling, melting, smell, and taste

Matter

physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spirit; (in physics) that

which occupies space and possesses rest mass, especially as distinct from energy

– Definition

– Homogeneous mixtures are pure containing only one substance such as blood
– Heterogeneous mixtures are NOT pure containing two or more substances such as pizza
– Elements are pure chemical substances made of same type of atom such as iron
– Compounds contain atoms of different elements chemically combined together in a fixed ratio such as water (H2O)

Atomic Structure
– Neutrons have no charge and carry a mass slightly larger then a proton
– Protons have a positive charge and carry a mass slightly smaller then a neutron
– Electrons have a negative charge and carry a mass much smaller then a proton
– An atomic number is the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus
– A mass number is the number of protons and neutrons combined in the atoms nucleus
– Isotopes are atoms that have more or less neutrons then the original atom
– Standard atomic notation is the way the number atom’s information is displayed (Protons plus neutrons equal the mass the atom carries)
– Bohr Rutherford diagram:

page1image25472

Elements –

Ions -F

Chemical Families

– Halogen means “salt-former” and compounds containing halogens are called “salts”. The Halogens are on the periodic table are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. All halogens have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1. The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter:

– Metal is

– Non-metal is Non-metals are the elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table. Non-metals are not able to conduct electricity or heat very well. As opposed to metals, non-metallic elements are very brittle, and cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets. The non- metals exist in two of the three states of matter at room temperature: gases (such as oxygen) and solids (such as carbon). The non-metals have no metallic luster, and do not reflect light. They have oxidation numbers of ±4, -3, and -2. The Non-Metal elements are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and selenium.

– Metalloid Metalloids are the elements found along the stair-step line that distinguishes metals from non-metals. This line is drawn from between Boron and Aluminum to the border between Polonium and Astatine. The only exception to this is Aluminum, which is classified under “Other Metals”. Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are semi-conductors. This means that they can carry an electrical charge under special conditions. The Metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium.

page2image13992

Element symbols are either one or two letters. If the symbol is one letter, capitalize it. If the

page2image15280

symbol is two letters, capitalize the first and the second is lower case.

page2image16368

ormed when protons or electrons are gained or lost by a busy atom. There are different types

page2image17616

of ions, with some being made up of only one charged atom and others being made with more

page2image18904

than one.

page2image19552

– Noble gases have oxidation numbers of 0 preventing the noble gases from forming compounds without hesitation. All noble gases have the maximum number of electrons possible in their outer shell (2 for Helium, 8 for all others), making them stable. Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon are the six noble gases on the periodic table.

page2image23320

  • Solid- Iodine, Astatine
  • Liquid- Bromine
  • Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine

page2image24760

a solid material that is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good

page2image25888

electrical and thermal conductivity (e.g., iron, gold, silver, copper, and aluminum, and alloys

page2image26976

such as brass and steel).

– Alkali metals are very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature. These metals have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements. As with all metals, the alkali metals are malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Cesium and francium are the most reactive elements in this group. Alkali metals can explode if they are exposed to water. The Alkali Metals are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium.

– Rare earth metals are composed of the lanthanide and actinide series. One element of the lanthanide series and most of the elements in the actinide series are called trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made. The Rare Earth Elements are made up of two series of elements, the Lanthanide and Actinide Series.

The Rare Earth Elements are: Lanthanide Series

  • Lanthanum
  • Cerium
  • Praseodymium
  • Neodymium
  • Promethium
  • Samarium
  • Europium
  • Gadolinium
  • Terbium
  • Dysprosium
  • Holmium
  • Erbium
  • Thulium
  • Ytterbium
  • Lutetium

Actinide Series

• Actinium
• Thorium
• Protactinium • Uranium
• Neptunium
• Plutonium
• Americium
• Curium
• Berkelium
• Californium
• Einsteinium
• Fermium
• Mendelevium • Nobelium
• Lawrencium

page3image17632 page3image17792

– Transition metals

The 38 elements in groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called “transition metals”. As with all metals, the transition elements are both ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat. The interesting thing about transition metals is that their valence electrons, or the electrons they use to combine with other elements, are present in more than one shell. This is the reason why they often exhibit several common oxidation states. There are three noteworthy elements in the transition metals family. These elements are iron, cobalt, and nickel, and they are the only elements known to produce a magnetic field.

The Transition Metals are:

  • Scandium
  • Titanium
  • Vanadium
  • Chromium

• Cadmium • Hafnium • Tantalum • Tungsten

page3image27616 page3image27776 page3image27936 page3image28096

  • Manganese
  • Iron
  • Cobalt
  • Nickel
  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Yttrium
  • Zirconium
  • Niobium
  • Molybdenum
  • Technetium
  • Ruthenium
  • Rhodium
  • Palladium
  • Silver
  • Rhenium
  • Osmium
  • Iridium
  • Platinum
  • Gold
  • Mercury
  • Rutherfordium
  • Dubnium
  • Seaborgium
  • Bohrium
  • Hassium
  • Meitnerium
  • Unununium
  • Unununium
  • Ununbium

– Alkaline earth metals

The alkaline earth elements are metallic elements found in the second group of the periodic table. All alkaline earth elements have an oxidation number of +2, making them very reactive. Because of their reactivity, the alkaline metals are not found free in nature.

The Alkaline Earth Metals are:

  • Beryllium
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Strontium
  • Barium
  • Radium

page4image18008

The columns tell me how many shells the element has and the rows tell me how many

electrons are in that last shell. Eg. P is #15 and it’s in the third row so it has 3 circles around it

and it’s 5 from the alkali metals which is the start so that means that it has 5 elections in it’s last/

third orbit. And for it to become stable it need’s 3 less electrons to become full there fore

Phosphorus needs to lose 3 more electrons to become stable