SBI3U Grade 11 Biology Prokaryotes, Viruses, and Eukaryotes Biodiversity Test

Thanks, Bairavi

“BACTERIA” – PROKARYOTES

 

Shapes of bacteria:

Bacteria are small one celled moneran’s, like warm, dark and moist conditions.

Spiral – Spirilla e.g Leptospira Interrogons

Rod-Shaped – Bacilli, Bacillus e.g Baccilus Anthracis

Round – Cocci. Coccus e.g neisseria meningitides

 

Reproduction of Bacteria

Bacteria is reproduced asexually through a process called Binary Fission

  • One organism divides into two

Asexual reproduction:

  • is reproduction of a living thing from only one parent
  • One main chromosome makes a copy of itself and then divides in 2

Sexual reproduction:

  • 2 parents provide genetic material in order to produce offspring
  • Meiosis (humans)

 

Bacterial survival

Bacteria survives through Endospores

  • Thick celled structure that forms inside the cell
  • Major cause of food poisoning
  • Allows bacteria to survive for a long time
  • With stands boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions
  • Encloses all nuclear material and some cytoplasm

Food sources

Parasites: Organisms that feed off of living things

Saprophytes: Organisms that feed off of dead materials

Decomposers: Get food from breaking down matter into simple chemicals

 

Aerobes: Use oxygen to survive

Anaerobes: Don’t need oxygen to survive but some die when there is oxygen *eg soil

 

HARMFUL VS HELPFUL

Harmful: Can cause diseases, communicable disease: passed down from one organism to another

Helpful: Decomposers help recycle nutrients into soil for other organisms, most are used to make antibiotics, some bacteria help make insulin, used to make industrial chemicals

 

Controlling Bacteria

Canning: Sealing food in airtight cans/jars after killing bacteria, endospores are killed

Pasteurization: Heating milk to kill harmful bacteria

Dehydration: Removing water from food, bacteria can’t grow when H2O is removed

Antiseptic: Chemicals that kill bacteria on living things (Hydrogen peroxide, soap, mouthwash)

Disinfectants: Stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects (Lysol, Clorox)

 

Nutrition of Bacteria

Heterotroph- Get energy through other organisms

Autotrophs- Get energy through light energy (photosynthesis)

Photoheterotrophs- Takes organic molecules from the environment

Chemoheterotrophs- Use energy through chemical reactions

 

 

 

VIRUSES & PROKARYOTES

  • Not a living organism
  • Use DNA & RNA to store information
  • Adapt to changing conditions by mutation
  • Cant reproduce on their own, need a host to reproduce
  • Made of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA&RNA)
  • Three shapes: Bateriophage, tobacco mosaic, influenza

They reproduce through:

Lytic cycle: Bacteriophage attaches to the host cell and injects its DNA. Forces the hosts cells enzymes and synthesis to make copies of the DNA. Once there are many copies, the host cell bursts releasing new viruses. Cycle is repeated when they infect other cells.

Lysogenic cycle: The viral genes are already in the host cell. Each time the host cell reproduces, the viral DNA is coped too. An environment change can trigger the viral DNA to separate from the hosts and start a lyric cycle. New bacteriophage are then made and released.

Immunity

 

Pathogen A bacteria, virus, microorganism that can cause a disease
Koch’s Postulates – Disease Identification 1. Pathogen must be found in the host in every case
2. Pathogen must be isolated from the host and grown in pure culture
3. When placed in a healthy host, pathogen must cause the disease
4. Pathogen must be isolated from the new host and shown to be the original pathogen
Endemic Diseases Found normally in a population COMMON COLD
Epidemic Diseases Many people acquire over a short period of time FLU
Pandemic Diseases World-wide epidemic disease.
Antibiotic Fights infections
First Line Defences/ Innate Immune System
  • Skin
  • Sweat
  • Tears
  • Saliva
  • Mucus
  • Stomach Acid
Second Line Defences/ Inflammatory
  • Redness
  • Heat
  • Swelling
  • Pain
Third Line Defences/ Immune System - Recognizes, attacks, destroys and remembers each pathogen

EUKARYOTES – PROTISTA

 

 

Reproduction: Mitosis, spore formation, asexually & sexually

Energy: Autotrophic or Heterotrophic

Mobility: Sessile or Motile

Cell orginization: Single celled

 

Animal-like Protists:

  • Protozoa
  • Characterized mostly by its method of locomotion (Ability to move from one place to another )
  • Hetertrophs – scaveners, predators, parasites
  • Most reproduce by mitosis, some sexual reproduction
  • Sprozoans – parasites that produce spores

Example: Prarmecium ( use cilia to move and sweep food ), Euglena ( Use flagella to move and hunt ), Amoeba  (movement with pseudopodia)

Plant-like Protists:

  • Phytoplankton, aquatic
  • Has chlorophyll but lack true plant like organs
  • Autotrophs
  • Usually sessile
  • Classified based on chloroplasts and pigment

Example: Green algae, Brown algae, Red algae

Fungi-like Protists:

  • Fungus like but also has charateristics of protoza and plants
  • Produces spores
  • Motile
  • Heterotrophs – decomposers

Example: Moulds and mildews

 

EUKARYOTES – ANIMILIA

Reproduction: Sexually – meiosis

Energy: Heterotrophic – digest food

Mobility: Motile

Cell orginization: Multicellular no cell walls

Characteristics:

All animals share the following characteristics:

  • They are eukaryotic, multicellular and have no cell walls
  • The are heterotrophs that usually ingest and then digest their food
  • They are usually mobile, in at least one stage of their lives
  • They reproduce sexually to produce an embryo that undergoes stages of development

Structural Features:

  • Made of hyphae (Tiny threads of cytoplasm )
  • Hhave cell walls made of chitin ( Hard material found in cocroaches )
  • Mycellia ( A web of hyphae under the fruiting body )
  • Fruiting body ( The visible part of the fungi, top of mushroom )
  • Mycorrhizae – vast amounts of mycelia. Fungus that forms a association with plant roots. Its function is to absorb sugars, starches, protiens and etc.

Life cycle:

  • Development from single cell to reproductive age
  • Spores  are haploid in number and are produced in sporangia
  • Dispersed by air currents and help fungi disperse to new locations
  • Spores produced by:
  • mitosis  asexual
  • meiosis  sexual

Reproduction:

 

 

Levels of orginization:

Atom -> Molucoule -> Organelle -> Cell -> Tissue -> Organ -> Organ System -> Organism

Number of body layers:

All animals but cnidarian jelly fish and proifera sponges have three layers of cells

  • Ectoderm: Skin, Nerve tissue
  • Mesorderm: Muscle, Blood, Kidneys
  • Endoderm: Form Lungs, Liver, Bladder

 

Symmetry:

Three types of symmetry

  • Asymmetrical: No symmetry e.g. coral, sponges
  • Radial symmetry: Symmetry in everyway cut e.g. jellyfish
  • Bilateral symmetry: Only symmetrical  e.g. dogs

 

Segmentation: The division of body into repetitive section, or segments. E.g. centipede

Movement: Most animals are mobile, but some are sessile e.g. sponges and coral

Reproduction: Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

 

 

Body Cavities - Digestive tract
Coelom - Organs suspended in fluid filled cavity

– Must have endoderm

Coelomate  
Acoelomate  
Pseudocoelomate  
Blastopore - Opening in the digestive tract
Protostomes - Mouth
Deutrosomes - Anus
Amoebocytes  
Amniotes - Reptiles, birds, and mammals
Amniotic Egg - Water proof egg with a shell

 

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