HSP3M Grade 11 Anthropology Psychology Sociology Exam

Thanks, Elizabeth!

 

Fully Formatted with diagrams and pictures PDF: Anthro-study-sheets

 

The Cognitive Process:

Encounter problem

Encode/store information

Infer possible relationships

Map information

Apply possible responses

Does answer work        No

Respond

 

Reticular formation

Inductive reasoning;

Specific à general

Deductive reasoning;

General à specific

 

Spinal cord; communication b/w brain and body, involved in simple

reflexes

Medulla; regulates unconscious functions i.e. breathing & circulation

Cerebellum;

Reticular formation; network of neurons, related to sleep, arousal and attention

Pons; sleep and arousal

Pituitary gland; “master gland” regulates other endocrine glands

Hypothalamus; regulates basic biological needs: hunger, thirst, temperature control

Thalamus; handles incoming and outgoing signals

Corpus callosum; Bridge fibres passing info from the left to the right

Cerebral cortex; makes us different from animals, controls sense, thoughts, language and memory

Left side

Right side

Language, verbal skills

Musical ability,

Emotions,

Information processing

 

 

 

2 kinds of Conditional learning:

A)   Classical; learning to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another

Ivan Pavlov = Pavlovian theory

Dogs salivate before food was eaten which is an unconditional response (automatic and unlearned) after using a bell before supper time they salivated at the sound of the bell alone which is a conditioned response (they learned that the bell meant dindin)

Unconditioned stimulus [food] = unconditioned response [salivate]
Conditioned stimulus [bell] = conditioned stimulus [salivate on command]

B)   Operant; behaviour and consequence [i.e.Rat pushes button, treat is released]

Punishment Stop undesired behaviour unpleasantly.
Negative reinforcement Event, situation or condition that decreases the likelihood of certain behaviour.
Positive reinforcement Event, situation or condition that increases the likelihood of certain behaviour.

 

                           OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
ATTENTION Pay attention to behaviour of others
RETENTION Store mental representation of what you observe in your memory
REPRODUCTION Stored memory into action
MOTIVATION Must believe the skill is useful to you

 

                            PHOBIAS
Acrophobia High places Hydrophobia Water
Agoraphobia Open spaces Lalophobia Public speaking
Algophobia Pain Phobophobia Fear of fear
Astraphobia Thunder/lightening Xenophobia Strangers
Claustrophobia Enclosed spaces Zoophobia Animals

 

  DEFENCE MECHANISMS
Repression Burying experience in the unconscious
Regression Reacting in a less mature way in order to avoid dealing with the problem
Rationalization Blaming a problem on an unrelated source
Denial Refusing to accept and unpleasant truth

 

Conscious (10%) Thoughts, perceptions; holds what we’re aware of, can be verbalized and thought of in a logical way.
Pre conscious (10-15%) Memories; things aren’t stored here but can be readily brought into the conscious part
Unconscious (75-80%) Fears, shameful experiences; Not directly accessible to awareness, dumping area for urges, feelings and ideas tied to anxiety, conflict and pain. Exert influence on our conscious awareness.

 

Id

Ego

Superego

Sexual & aggressive instincts; follows the pleasure principle

“I’m so mad I could hit you!”

Mediates b/w desires of the id & demands of the superego; follows the reality principle

“Let’s talk about it first”

Represents conscience & the rules of society

“It is wrong to resort to physical violence”

Unconscious

Halfie

Mostly unconscious

Since birth

Learns from experiences as a small child

Last to develop

 

Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Higher needs: besides basic biological needs, humans have more complex needs than animals. We need the companionship of other humans to provide safety, security, love and affection.

 

Jean Piaget- Stages of Cognitive Development

1)   Sensorimotor 2) Preparational 3) Concrete operational 4) Formal operational
Birth – 2, no understanding outside of immediate enviro.Develops motor skills 2-7, lack ability to realize quantity of substanceDevelop language & perspective 7-12, develop logical thinking & conceptualize ideas and principlesCan’t grasp studying habits 12- adulthood, think abstract & problem-solve, examine, good work habits 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning

Preconventional Level: Focus on Self

Stage 1 – Punishment and obedience

– Physical consequence determine nature of act

– Avoid punishment = motivation

– Submits to power/authority to avoid punishment

Stage 2 –Personal Usefulness

– Right = satisfies ones needs and occasionally others

– Relations are interrupted by: “what is useful to me?”

Conventional Level: Focus on the Group

Stage 3 – Conforming to the will of the group

– Good behaviour = what pleases others

– Gain approval & avoid disapproval

– Behaviour is judged by intention

Stage 4 – Law and Order

– Sees obedience to rules for their own sake as necessary to maintain order

– Right behaviour = doing duty and respecting authority

– Flaws are due to failure of individuals to obey the system

 Post conventional Level: Focus on Principles

Stage 5 – Social Contract

– Right actions = general vaules agreed upon by the whole society

– One may work to change laws

Stage 6 – Personal Conscience

– Right = personal conscience in accord with ethical principles

– Universal principle of justice, human rights and respect for human dignity