HSB4U – Grade 12 Challenges and Changes in Society – Fertility Unit Notes


Thanks, Alexis!

Developed world: industrialized, wealthy countries

Developing world: less wealthy, non-industrialized countries

Fertility: actual reproduction, the ability to physically conceive children

Fecundity: the ability to reproduce, realization and choice to conceive

Fertility rate: actual number of children had by women

Replacement levels: number of births required to maintain a stable population

Infertile: inability to conceive a child (trying for 1 year without success)

Estrogen: female sex hormone

Proximate determinant: the biological and behavioural factors through which social, economic and environmental variables affect fertility

Prolactin: a pituitary hormone that regulates the production of progesterone

Ovulation: the monthly release of an egg(s)

Weaning: the removal of breast milk from the diet of a young child

Menarche: first menstrual period

Barrenness: inability to have children

Involuntary childlessness: when a couple or individual wants to have children but cannot

Reproductive technologies: things that improve a couple’s chances of conceiving and carrying a child to term through medical manipulation

In vitro fertilization: reproductive technique where fertilization occurs in a laboratory dish between sperm and egg

Intrauterine insemination: introduces man’s strongest sperm directly into uterus

Superovulation: producing more than one egg per cycle

Gamete intrafallopian transfer: sperm and egg mixed and then injected into one or both fallopian tubes

Artificial insemination by donor: egg fertilized by frozen sperm of a donor

Surrogate: a mother who lends her uterus to another couple so they can have a baby

Voluntary childlessness: couples or individuals who freely choose to remain childless

Developmental trend: any life cycle process through which individuals pass

Identity crisis: conflict during adolescence when individuals try to figure out who they are

Identity achievement: a firm sense of self

Identity diffusion: the inability to achieve a sense of self or identity

Separation-individualization process: when teens gradually pull away from their parents and become independent

Socialization: process by which children are shaped into responsible members of society

Gender identity: one’s concept of maleness/femaleness

Socialization agent: a group or institution that has a significant impact on the values and beliefs of a culture (eg. family, peers, media, school)

Religiosity: a person’s religious affiliation and their attendance at religious services

Factors that influence plans to have children: marital status, family values, religious beliefs, education levels, economic standing

Elkind’s Theory of Adolescence:

Immaturity of thinking process: thinking/decision-making processes tend to be based on their ego/thought processes that aren’t considering all aspects

Indecisiveness: more aware of the many choices they have and have a hard time picking one

“Grey” decision-making: decrease in grey matter, brain isn’t fully developed, can’t process everything

Idealism: teens imagine/ see the world as ideal, can’t see reality clearly, have idealized view of political systems, religious beliefs, relationships

Invincibility: they believe nothing bad can happen and that they will be the exception to the consequences

Egocentrism: natural restriction on our perspective because we only see the world from our point of view

Imaginary audience: individual believes a large audience is watching and listening to them, cares about their triumphs and failures

Personal fable: individual is special and unique, no common life difficulties will affect them, they are the exception


Short Answer:

Elkind & the difficulties of adolescence








Parenthood & commonly encountered troubles