HFN2O1 Grade 10 Food and Nutrition Nutrients Test

Grade 10 Open food and nutritions course nutrients unit test study guide/notes. HFN2O1 HFN2O1
Food and Nutrition Nutrients Unit Test notes
Nutrition: Why you eat and how the food you eat affects your body and your health
All living things, including you needs food and water to live
Nutrition is to figure out which foods and beverages, in what amount, provide energy and building materials you need to build and maintain every organ and system
-substances that your body needs to:
-build and maintain tissues
-send messages between cells to allow essential chemical reactions to occur (such as feeling, thinking, tasting, touching, and eating)
Macronutrients: needed in large quantities more than 1g per day
Micronutrients: less than 1g per day
Carbohydrates – stores energy (is used by cells in body)
-starches, cereal, macaroni, fibers
-Fast digestion
-cheap and economical to get
-sugars, fruits, milks
-energy, makes fat work better
Too Much: overweight + related problems
Too little: fatigue and poor digestion
Fats – Stores more energy than carbohydrates
-not from animal fats; olive, vegetable, palm oils
-fatty acids
-some fat acids essential for growth
-from animals; fat from beef, margarines, cream
-carries soluble vitamins
Too much: overweight + related problems
Too little: skin problems from lack of fatty acids
Proteins: Help make antibodies and help form new cells
-Most animal foods: meat, fish, poultry, eggs
-Incomplete -All plant foods: legumes, cereals, grains
-Helps antibodies fight off germs
-regulate body processes: water balance, blood acidity
-amino acids to build body proteins (amino that cannot be supplied by body)
Too much: waste if $$, excess stored fat will never be used effectively
Too Little: poor vitality, muscles, and immune system
Vitamins: used to speed up chemical reactions
-Vitamin A
-Found in livers, yellow fruits, carrots, pumpkins, sweet potatoes
-help eyes adjust to light, keeps skin healthy, promotes growth, and resist infection in mouth, nose, and throat
Too much: headaches, skin yellow, stops child growth
Too little: eyes oversensitive to light, blindness, skin cracked, infection
-Vitamin C
-Found in citrus fruits, oranges, strawberries, broccoli
-works with calcium to help maintain healthy bones and teeth
-keeps blood vessels stay strong
-helps fight body infections
Too much: Diarrhea
Too little: Bleeding Gums, loss of appetite, bad bones
-Vitamin D
-Made on sunlight
-Helps body use calcium and phosphorus
-Needed for bones and teeth, heart and nerves maintenance
Too Much: Nausea
Too little: weak bones, teeth etc.
-Vitamin E
-Comes from vegetable oil, corn, or soybeans
-Protects vitamin A from oxidization
-Helps form blood and muscles
Too little: Nausea, dizziness
Too much: Blood cells may rupture, Muscle wasted
-Vitamin K
-Made by bacteria in intestines
-Needed for blood clotting
Too much: Jaundice
Too little: Bleeding, calcium loss, antibiotics users will need vitamin K
Minerals: used for many body processes, becomes part of body
-From Milk and dairy products
-maintain healthy bones and teeth
-Helps blood flow better and build proper muscles
Too Little: Weak bones, Osteoporosis
Too Much: Difficult to get excess, excess of phosphorus replaces calcium
-From Livers, Kidney, Egg yolk, Dried Beans, and spinach
-Helps make hemoglobin to help use oxygen
Too little: Anemia: poor appetite, pale skin, tired feeling
Too much: Damage liver and body
-From Meat, seafood, and milk
-Helps use carbohydrates, proteins, and fat
-Important in reproduction, growth, and healing
Too Little: loss of taste and slow healing
Too much: fever, nausea
-Iodine table salt, sea water fish
-helps thyroid glands
Too little: Goiter, swelling in neck due to enlarged thyroid gland
-Organ meats, whole grain cereal
-Keeps nervous system healthy
Too little: muscle tremors
Too much: disturbed nervous functions
Anemia: lack of iron leading to pale skin and tiredness
-Cause: Iron deficiency
-Sources: Liver, bread, spinach, milk
-Age group: adolescent females, pre menopausal women
Cardiovascular disease: narrowing of passageways supplying blood
-Cause: excess fat, lack of fibre and vitamin A and C
-Sources: Animal fat, Fibre from vegetables, and vitamin from fruits
-any age group
Osteoporosis: lack of calcium to support bones
-Cause: Calcium deficiency
-Sources: dairy products
-Age Group: generally older women
Scurvy: Lack of Vitamin C causing weakness and lack of appetite
-Cause: Vitamin C deficiency
-Sources: Citrus fruits, broccoli
-Any Age group
Rickets: Bones become week
-Cause: not enough vit D to help process calcium
-Sources: fortified milk
-Any Age group
Kwashiorkor: severe lack of protein creating stunted growth
-Cause: protein deficiency
-Sources: Animal food, legumes, soybeans
-Age Group: mostly infants
Pellagra: Niacin Deficiency resulting in skin irritation and digestive disturbances
-Causes: protein deficiency
-Sources: liver, fish
-Age group: common with people who eat corn
Goiter: Large swelling in neck
-Cause: lack of iodine
-Sources: table salt, sea water fish
-Any Age Group
Jaundice: Yellowness of skin and eyes
-Causes: Too much Vitamin k
-Sources: leafy green vegetables, livers, potatoes
-Age group: infants
Lifecycle HFN2O1 HFN2O1
Pregnancy > Infancy > Early Childhood > Adolescent > Adult Hood > older adulthood
-baby depends on mother for nutrition
-for the first 3 days after birth, the mother’s breasts produce colostrums which are very nutritious
Early childhood
-food habits from this time stays forever
-Children eat smaller servings than adults but they need to eat more often
-Rapid growth demands rapid nutrients
-Friends, family, money, and media impact food choices
-many adults do not realize that they have a bad eating habits until diseases occur
Older adults
-may experience health problems
-medication could interfere with appetite and taste