FSF2D – Grade 10 Academic French Exam Notes

French

 

Le Participe Passé: Avoir:

– make agreements with avoir when a direct object precedes the verb

> a pronoun: Elle l’a mangée.

> a question where the direct object is before the verb

> the pronoun “que”

– no agreements with the object pronouns: lui, leur, y, en

 

Le Participe Passé Comme Adjectif:

– sometimes we use the participe as an adjective, but you must make agreements with what the adjective is describing

> les homards sont cuits à la perfection

 

Imparfait Avec Avoir et Être:

– past tense used for descriptions

– avoir and être are mainly used in this tense

Avoir Etre

avais étais

avais étais

avait était

avions étions

aviez étiez

avaient étaient

 

Imparfait:

– translates to “was” or “used” to

– to conjugate: take nous form of verb, drop the –ons, and add:

-ais, – ais, – ait, – ions, – iez, – aient

– exceptions:

> verbs that end with –ger: mangeais, mangeais, mangeait, mangions, mangiez, mangeaient

> verbs that end with –cer: commençais, commençais, commençait, commencions, commenciez, commençaient

> verbs that end with –ier: étudiais, étudiais, étudiait, étudiions, étudiiez, étudiaient

 

Usage de l’Imparfait:

– les descriptions (physique, personnalité)

– l’état émotionnel et physique

– les actions répétées ou habituelles

– une action qui continue dans le passé et qui est interrompue (quand + pc)

– deux actions simultanées (pendant que)

– le temps

– l’heure

– these verbs usually take imparfait: savoir, avoir, pouvoir, vouloir, être

– use passé instead of imparfait when an action is terminated in the past, it’s an interruption or the actions are in chronological order

Passé—Imparfait:

– avoir: had, got, received—had

– connaitre: met—knew, was familiar with

– devoir: must have, had to—was supposed to (whether I did it or not)

– pouvoir: could, was able to—could, was able to (whether I did to not)

– savoir: learned, found out—knew

– vouloir: tried, decided to—wanted

 

Les Verbs Prominaux au Passé Composé:

– reflexive verbs in passé use être and make agreements

– don’t make agreements when:

> there is a direct object following that is a body part

> if the reflexive pronoun is indirect (lui, leur)

Verbs that Require Indirect Pronouns:

– se dire, se demander, s’écrire, se montre, s’offrir, se proposer, se servir, se faire mal, se parler, se repondre, se téléphoner, se donner, s’envoyer, se raconter, se vendre

 

Le Futur Simple:

– infinitive + endings

– ai, as, a, ons, ez, ont

– with –re verbs, drop the e

Irregular:

– venir—viendr, courir—courr, voir—verr, faire—fer, aller—ir, devoir—devr, pouvoir—pourr, avoir—aur, etre—ser, vouloir—voudr, savoir—saur, mourir—mourr, recevoir—recevr, devenir—deviendr

 

Le Participe Présent:

– 1st person plural (nous) is formed

– take off –ons, add –ant

– same rules for regular and irregular

> ger verbs, don’t drop the e and cer verbs, change c to ç

– always preceded by en (no je, tu, il, etc. but keep reflective pronouns)

– 3 irregular: être—étant, avoir—ayant, savoir—sachant

– makes –ing in English

– can be two actions going on at the same time, and used to describe how we do something

 

Les Pronoms Relatifs:

– 6 in total—3 to combine ideas, 3 to introduce them

Combining:

Qui: (who/that)

– used to combine two ideas when the second idea doesn’t have a subject, is always followed by a verb

– never becomes qu’

– c’est la publicité qui est intéressant

Que: (that/whom)

– used to combine two ideas when the second idea does have a subject—que is always followed by a subject

– c’est le message publicitaire que j’ai vu

Dont:

– used to combine idea/verb that ends in de (demander de)—replaces the subject

– j’adore l’émission don’t tu m’as parlé (de)

Replacing:

Ce Qui: (what/which)

– introduces idea without a subject

– ce qui est intéressant, c’est la publicité

Ce Que: (what/which)

– introduces an idea with a subject

– ce que j’ai vu, c’était le ménage publicitaire

Ce Dont: (what/which)

– introduces an idea that ends in de

– ce dont tu m’as parlé (de) c’était l’émission

* verbs followed by de: parler de, avoir peur de, avoir besoin de, avoir envie de, être revi de, être content de, être satisfait de, être fier de, se souvenir de

 

Le Conditionnel:

– translates to should or would—expresses a possibility

– add imparfait endings to the infinitive

– -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient

– irregular are the same as futur simple

– regular: tu aimerais, nous chanterions

 

Les Pronoms:

D’objet Direct: le, la, les

– answers the questions what or whom

– replaces a noun

– “Il mange la pomme.” “Il la mange.”

– with passé composé, make agreements (m.s. = nothing, f.s. = e, m.pl. = s, f.pl. = es)

D’objet Indirect: me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur

– preceded by: à, à la, à l’, au, aux (must be to people)

– answers to whom or for whome

– “Jean donne la pomme à moi.” “Jean me donne la pomme.”

Le Pronom Y:

– replaces a place or ideo/noun

– introduced by a preposition of place: à, dans, sous, sur, au-dessus, avant, chez, devant

– “Je vais à la fête.” “J’y vais.”

Le Pronom En:

– replaces a thing or idea

– introduced by: du, de la, des, un, une, deux, or a quantity

– part of an object or unspecified amount

– “Je mange dix pommes.” “J’en mange dix.”

La Position:

– with one verb = before verb

– with two verbs = before infinitive

– with passé compose = before avoir or être (only with direct object pronouns make agreements)

 

L’ordre de Pronoms:

– for two or more pronouns

1: me, te, nous, vouse

2: le, la, les

3: lui, leur

4: y

5: en

– “Il cherche le chat dans le parc.” “Il l’y cherche.”

 

Les Phrases Impersonnelles:

– expresses an idea without a subject

– in English means “It is…”

– in French, two kinds: one is followed by DE and one by QUE—DE is followed by infinitive

– formula: “Il est” + adjective + de + infinitive …

– “Il est important de parler avec un ami quand on est stressé.”

 

Impératif:

– used to give commands, directions, advice, suggestions

– make form of tu, nous and vous of the present tense—pronoun is not used

– in ER verbs in tu form, take off the “s”

– three forms: one person = tu, including you = nous, people = vous

– always followed by exclamation mark

– parler = Parle! Parlons! Parlez!

– finir = Finis! Finissons! Finissez!

– attendre = Attends! Attendons! Attendez!

– four irregular:

> être: Sois! Soyons! Soyez!

> avoir: Aie! Ayons! Ayez!

> savoir: Sache! Sachons! Sachez!

> vouloir: Veuille! Nothing. Veuillez!

 

Impératif aves les Pronoms:

– an order/command, given with tu, nous or vous forms

Postive Sentence:

– the pronoun is after the verb

– must have hyphen between the verb and pronoun (and all other pronouns)

– new order:

1. le, la, les, l’

2. lui, leur

3. moi, toi, nous, vous *if me or te are the only ones in sentence they become moi and toi

4. y

5. en

– “Apportez-les-la!” Bring them there!

– me and te change to m’ or t’ and then there’s no hyphen

Negative Sentence:

– the pronoun is before the verb

– no hyphens

– when y is the only pronoun, it stays as y, but when it’s the last in a series it becomes là

– “Offre-lui-en!” becomes “Ne lui en offre pas!”

 

Les Phrases Conditionnelles:

– indicates possibility and relies on conditions

– two parts, si clause (if) and the result if the si clause happens

– the tense of the result depends on the tense of the result

– formula: si + the present (condition) = present, future or imperatif result

– “Si mes amis partent, je partirai aussi.”

– formula: si + imparfait (condition) = conditionnel (result)

– “Si j’avais faim, je mangerais une pomme.”