CHC2P1 Grade 10 History WWI Test

History WWI and 1920s Test Notes for applied class CHC2P1CHC2P1

Primary Source: sources first hand occurred at the time of the event

Secondary Source: created after an event has occurred long ago

Fact: Provokes between true or false, can be checked, specifc, detailed, and have numbers or statistics

Opinions: subjective (I believe) contains judgement (good vs bad), and adjectives

Canada and WWI

-Canada was a british colony after confederation with ONT, QUE, NB, and BC

-John A mcdonald was first president

-reason: provinces didnt want to be sucked in to be american

-Wilfred Laurier: first french president made french cdns angry cuz he supported the english people

Robert Borden: led canada into war. Made people support england but still have them a canadian identity

WWI competitors

France : George Clemenceau : second best army

UK: King George 5th: Strongest NAVY : wealthiest + colonies

Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm 2nd: Strongest ARMY but not largest : wanted colonies

Russia : Tsar Nicholass 2nd: largest army but not strong : biggest pop.

Italy: Vittorio Emanele Orlando: smallest army : just became a country

Austria Hungary: Emperor Franz Joseph: weak industries, multination each wanted indp

Background cases for war

Militarism: belief that better army is better

Alliance: partnership between countries for eachother’s success

Imperialism: extending power and influence of a country to it’s colonies

Nationalism: extreme pride for countries

Groups

Triple Entente: UK, Russia, France

Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy

Events leading to war

June 28: assassination of Arch Duke army leader, Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo Austria

July 23: Austria blamed serbia and sends a warning

July 25: Serbia rejects warning, supported by Russia

July 28: Austria Declares war to fight serbia

July 28: Russia prepares army to protect serbia, Germany declares war on Russia

Aug 3: France declares war on Germany, Germany also declares war on France

Aug 4: UK declares war on Germany

Aug 5: Canada goes to war

Aus vs Serbia, Russia vs Aus, Germany vs Russia, France vs Germany, Germany vs Russia, UK vs Germany, Canada with UK

Italy switched sides after and Japan also joined later along with USA

Weapons used in WWI

Airplane: used for spying, could not fire

Artillery: canons shooting grenades or large projectiles

Calvary: dudes on horses fighting

Chlorine Gas: Smoke bombs first used in this war. Ypres used most. Gas masks invent

Dreadnought: Brings supplies, travels in groups with other ships

Flamethrower: blast flames and gas at a short distance

Machine Gun: Shoots many bullets very quickly

Tank: Treaded vehicle capable of shooting long range

Rifle: shoots far, needed to reload often (slow). Canada used crappy Ross Rifles

Submarines: underwater machines used for in sea battles

Trench warfare:

-People excited to go to war: 25000 requested, 30000 joined

-Fought on western front, between France and Germany, Belgium to France

-Smooth grounds so people built trenches to take cover

Entente: more structured, muddy, dirty, rocks crumbling down

German: organized, clean, wooden, no mud, more drainage

-Communication Wires used as telephones

-Trenches often get flooded with urine and raine, making it muddy

-Trench foot and trench mouth from bacteria eating into soldier’s skin

-Dirty uniforms lead to lice

-Played cards, smoked, and drunk as well as write home

-Freezing winters and bad rotting odor made things unbearable

-Bad food made worse with rats

No Man’s Land

-Between 2 trenches covered in craters and shells

-Dead bodies, and land mines, and barbed wires covered the area

-Many went “over the top” to go into enemy fire in order to gain land

-SAP: front lookout post to peek into enemy activity

-Machine Gun nest: where machine guns are kept

-Trench Mortar: Storage for heavy ammunition

-Latrine: Bathroom

-Communication Trench: used to move supplies and soldiers to and from the front

Dugout: shelter side of trenches in the ground for living and protection (same as billet)

Battles of WWI

Schlieffen Plan

-Germans were suppose to go through Belgium and head south down to paris to get to France soldiers

-But they turned south too soon, where French soldiers were close enough to battle with them head on and push them back

Ypres

-April 21-24 1915: Western Front: French, British, Canada, vs Germany

-First time use of poison gas, CDN used urine rags to stay alive while British left

-6000 CDN died, most famous in CDN history and first reputation

The Sommes

-July to Sept 1916: French, British, CDN, vs Germany

-Worse battle of all time

-General Haig kept sending soldiers up to overcome the Germans for 141 days

-Half a million dead in 3 months for 12 km of land

Vimy Ridge: April 9th, 1917

-Canada’s Crowning moment

-200,000 French and British Failed

-Canada took charge to plan stuff out. Arthur Curie made the creeping barrage

-bomb then soldiers crept up and after 2H, canada owned Vimy Ridge

-Canada fought alone as a nation for the first time

Passchendaele: Nov 6th, 1917, Marshlands of Germany

-Mud was thick and hard to battle on. No trenches made

-68,000 British Died

-After 3 months, Canada captured Passchendaele

-Wet, Dangerous conditions made things hard

Canada’s homefront

-Women:

-went into jobs to replace men

-started working in harsh conditions making weapons etc.

-dedicated to soldiers

-1915, same amount of men of women worked in machine shops

-Most worked half the pay because they loved their men

-Victory Bonds

-Loan money to Canada and get it back later with interest

-Tax

-Tobacco, alcohol and medicine taxes.

-business and income tax (PST) was temporary but still used today

People

-Aboriginals

-Denied of war at first, thinking they’d be treated as savages

-Later accepted due to men shortage

-Black

-Denied because they thought to be poorer people

-Blacks hired to dig trenches after protest

-Germans

-Thought as spies, isolated, and ignored as enemy aliens

-Put in jail and report movements to police

-Asian canadians

-couldn’t vote nor join war but some later accepted in battalions

Conscription

-Mandatory law for people to join war because ppl were dying

-18+ healthy men forced to join army

-Robert Borden (english men) made law in 1916

-English loved it because it supported British and Borden

-French hated it after french wasnt the main language and were treated as minority

End of WWI

-Russia couldn’t support so they quit. Country and army falling apart

Canada’s 100 days

-led many more attacks

-most effieicent yet: 130 km in 100 days after 3 years for 12 km

-Germany near collapse. CDN took charge until British got backup

Armistice: agreement in ending war

-signed Nov 11 1918 to end war in a railway car by representatives

Results:

60 000 CDN died, 250 000 wounded

30 m casualties in whole war

League of Nations

-Global organization for peace

-wanted WWI to be the last war ever

Treaty of versailles 1919 demanded Germany to:

-be blamed for WWI

-Give back taken land

-pay 30 billion in damages

-reduce army size and be trolled by allied troops

Canada After war

-Depressed, relieved, proud, and shocked

-happy if soldiers came back well, depressed if otherwise

  1. economy

-many factories quit when artillery isn’t necessary

-soldiers came back looking for their job back but denied

  1. Society

-Workers demanded new rights for poor living/working conditions

-Unions created

1920s: Roaring twenties

“people wanted new forms of entertainment to get out of depression”

  1. Media development : new media for new sources of entertainment
  2. Merchandise and sales grew: cheap stuff (3.50 toaster) and unions

Music

-Jazz popular to celebrate end of war

-happy mood music to cheer people up

-medium speed sometimes fast, upbeat

-little lyrics

-Deep drums, bass, tuba, cello, trombones, sax, trumpet

-Happy and high pitched mood

Fads/Trends

Dances:

-Fox Trot, Bunny hop, Charleston

Mah Jong

-ancient game adapted to be played in parties

Books:

-Puzzles and cartoons mainstream

Entertainment

-Silent movies with live band orchestras

-Charlie Chaplin

Radio

-Live hockey

-Silver Screens

-Canada’s first rogers batteryless (CFRB)

Fashion

Women most popular in fashion

-Flappers popular

-cheap fabric

-rich and poor looked the same

Men- Gell hair

-bright hats

-Formal for business

-Baggy pants and ties

Sports

-Hockey popular

-Professional sport teams

-Hockey, football, baseball

-Edmonton Grads: best in basketball 502-20 ratio: owned 4 olympics

Economy in 1920s

-Automobiles sprung many new businesses

-Automobiles led people to tour, move farther, and development of suburbs

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