CHC2P1 Grade 10 History Exam

Canadian Applied History Final Exam Study Notes CHC2P1
History Exam Study Notes
Background cases for war
Militarism: belief that better army is better
Alliance: partnership between countries for eachother’s success
Imperialism: extending power and influence of a country to it’s colonies
Nationalism: extreme pride for countries
Weapons used in WWI
Airplane: used for spying, could not fire
Artillery: canons shooting grenades or large projectiles
Calvary: dudes on horses fighting
Chlorine Gas: Smoke bombs first used in this war. Ypres used most. Gas masks invent
Dreadnought: Brings supplies, travels in groups with other ships
Flamethrower: blast flames and gas at a short distance
Machine Gun: Shoots many bullets very quickly
Tank: Treaded vehicle capable of shooting long range
Rifle: shoots far, needed to reload often (slow). Canada used crappy Ross Rifles
Submarines: underwater machines used for in sea battles
Trench warfare:
-People excited to go to war: 25000 requested, 30000 joined
-Fought on western front, between France and Germany, Belgium to France
-Smooth grounds so people built trenches to take cover
Entente: more structured, muddy, dirty, rocks crumbling down
German: organized, clean, wooden, no mud, more drainage
-Communication Wires used as telephones
-Trenches often get flooded with urine and raine, making it muddy
-Trench foot and trench mouth from bacteria eating into soldier’s skin
-Dirty uniforms lead to lice
-Played cards, smoked, and drunk as well as write home
-Freezing winters and bad rotting odor made things unbearable
-Bad food made worse with rats
No Man’s Land
-Between 2 trenches covered in craters and shells
-Dead bodies, and land mines, and barbed wires covered the area
-Many went “over the top” to go into enemy fire in order to gain land
Triple Entente: UK, Russia, France
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy
Schlieffen Plan
-Germans were suppose to go through Belgium and head south down to paris to get to France soldiers
-But they turned south too soon, where French soldiers were close enough to battle with them head on and push them back
Ypres
-April 21-24 1915: Western Front: French, British, Canada, vs Germany
-First time use of poison gas, CDN used urine rags to stay alive while British left
-6000 CDN died, most famous in CDN history and first reputation
The Sommes
-July to Sept 1916: French, British, CDN, vs Germany
-Worse battle of all time
-General Haig kept sending soldiers up to overcome the Germans for 141 days
-Half a million dead in 3 months for 12 km of land
Vimy Ridge: April 9th, 1917
-Canada’s Crowning moment
-200,000 French and British Failed
-Canada took charge to plan stuff out. Arthur Curie made the creeping barrage
-bomb then soldiers crept up and after 2H, canada owned Vimy Ridge
-Canada fought alone as a nation for the first time
Passchendaele: Nov 6th, 1917, Marshlands of Germany
-Mud was thick and hard to battle on. No trenches made
-68,000 British Died
-After 3 months, Canada captured Passchendaele
-Wet, Dangerous conditions made things hard
Canada’s homefront
-Women:
-went into jobs to replace men
-started working in harsh conditions making weapons etc.
-dedicated to soldiers
-1915, same amount of men of women worked in machine shops
-Most worked half the pay because they loved their men
-Victory Bonds
-Loan money to Canada and get it back later with interest
-Tax
-Tobacco, alcohol and medicine taxes.
-business and income tax (PST) was temporary but still used today
People
-Aboriginals
-Denied of war at first, thinking they’d be treated as savages
-Later accepted due to men shortage
-Black
-Denied because they thought to be poorer people
-Blacks hired to dig trenches after protest
-Germans
-Thought as spies, isolated, and ignored as enemy aliens
-Put in jail and report movements to police
-Asian canadians
-couldn’t vote nor join war but some later accepted in battalions
Conscription
-Mandatory law for people to join war because ppl were dying
-18+ healthy men forced to join army
-Robert Borden (english men) made law in 1916
-English loved it because it supported British and Borden
-French hated it after french wasnt the main language and were treated as minority
End of WWI
-Russia couldn’t support so they quit. Country and army falling apart
Canada’s 100 days
-led many more attacks
-most effieicent yet: 130 km in 100 days after 3 years for 12 km
-Germany near collapse. CDN took charge until British got backup
Armistice: agreement in ending war
-signed Nov 11 1918 to end war in a railway car by representatives
League of Nations
-Global organization for peace
-wanted WWI to be the last war ever
Treaty of versailles 1919 demanded Germany to:
-be blamed for WWI
-Give back taken land
-pay 30 billion in damages
-reduce army size and be trolled by allied troops
Canada After war
-Depressed, relieved, proud, and shocked
-happy if soldiers came back well, depressed if otherwise
  1. economy
-many factories quit when artillery isn’t necessary
-soldiers came back looking for their job back but denied
  1. Society
-Workers demanded new rights for poor living/working conditions
-Unions created
1920s: Roaring twenties
“people wanted new forms of entertainment to get out of depression”
  1. Media development : new media for new sources of entertainment
  2. Merchandise and sales grew: cheap stuff (3.50 toaster) and unions
Music
-Jazz popular to celebrate end of war
-happy mood music to cheer people up
-medium speed sometimes fast, upbeat
-little lyrics
-Deep drums, bass, tuba, cello, trombones, sax, trumpet
-Happy and high pitched mood
Fads/Trends
Dances:
-Fox Trot, Bunny hop, Charleston
Mah Jong
-ancient game adapted to be played in parties
Books:
-Puzzles and cartoons mainstream
Entertainment
-Silent movies with live band orchestras
-Charlie Chaplin
Radio
-Live hockey
-Silver Screens
-Canada’s first rogers batteryless (CFRB)
Fashion
Women most popular in fashion
-Flappers popular
-cheap fabric
-rich and poor looked the same
Men- Gell hair
-bright hats
-Formal for business
-Baggy pants and ties
Sports
-Hockey popular
-Professional sport teams
-Hockey, football, baseball
-Edmonton Grads: best in basketball 502-20 ratio: owned 4 olympics
Economy in 1920s
-Automobiles sprung many new businesses
-Automobiles led people to tour, move farther, and development of suburbs
Great depression
-As stocks went up, many people loaned money to buy stocks
-people bought a lot of things and ran out of money
-when time came to return their loans, people couldn’t
no one had money to buy anything new: stores crashed
-stocks crashed before people could cash in their stocks
-banks fell, and everyone lost all their money.
Decreasing demand, job loss, no opportunities = ECONOMIC RECESSION
New items, money flow, demands, jobs = RECOVERY
Lots of demands, lots of jobs, money flowing a lot = PROSPERITY
Less demands, less money flow, people losing jobs = RECESSION
No demand, no money, no jobs, low wages = DEPRESSION
-People living in very low wages
-Often became homeless and bills couldn’t be paid
-Ate animals and attended soup kitchens
-Free food after police interrogation
-free meals of cheap food to serve the poor
OK – Mail Men -> Maids -> Farmers -> Clerks -> Insurance/Bankers – WORSE
Prairies
-No demand for wheat : Overpriced, Cheap alternatives
-Droughts
-Pests : ate good plants
-Windstorms
-Blew up dry crops and creating Dustbowls
-Model T (w/o engine) -> Bennett Buggy
-for PM Bennett who didn’t care about the people during this time
Food Vouchers: exchange for food for people in Public Welfare
On Relief: helped by government to live
Riding the Rods: hiding on trains to leave to another city for jobs
Escapism: get away from problems : sports, recreation, movies, radio
Canada:
-WIlliam Lyon Mackenzie King (1935-1948)
-Wanted people to keep money flowing
-used government funds to create new opportunities
Old aged pensions
All was good in Canada, things were changing +
Road to war
Background Causes
-Poverty: Germany never had Roaring Twenties
-Fear: Minority groups wanted independence
Big countries afraid of splitting colonies -> loss of power
-Hatred: Germany humiliated by Treaty of Versailles (New hope)
-Broken Hope: lost faith in leaders during WWI
-Believed in dictatorship government
Totalitarianism
-COMPLETE control of all country aspects
-Nationalistic symbols prominent
-Military control
-Censorship (not to allow new ideas)
-Terror from citizens
Facism: Ruled by 1 person / CAN Business
Communism: Dictator/Party / NO Business
***Benito Mussolini  ITALY
-Italian Leader 1922-1943
-total control over citizens => RICH/POOR
-Promised Economic Growth and Land/Power
***Joseph Stalin  RUSSIA
-Communist – RICH POOR SAME
-No businesses
-Censored all religion and anyone who was against gov’t
-Murdered 20M Russian
***Hirohito  JAPAN
-Emperor – related to heaven
-whatever he wants, people will do for GOD
-favoured raw materials and $
-Goal: PACIFIC EMPIRE
***Francisco Franco  SPAIN
-Facism businesses
-Gained support from hitler/mussolini
-Power
***Adolf Hitler  GERMANY
-Hate against Jews
-wanted to rebuild stride and power
-NAZI party
Steps to WWII
League of nations: Triple entente during WWI
  1. League vs Japan
-Japan invaded Manchuria
-League of nations did not respond
  1. Germany army build up (1933-1935)
-Hitler made secret armies
-Luftwaffe -> German Air force Defense
  1. German invasion of Rhineland (1936)
-Hitler rejected ToV and went into Rhineland
-League of nations did not respond
  1. German invasion of Austria (March 1938)
-Germany part of THIRD RIECH -> next gen Germany
  1. German invasion of Sudetenland (Oct 1938)
-With agreement form Germany, Italy, Britain, and France
Allies Allowed Invasion
  1. Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia (Mar 1939)
-All German
  1. Invasion of Danzing Corridor (1939)
-led to Invasion of Poland
Britain and France defended Poland
WWII Began (Sept 1, 1939)
-Canada Joined 10 days later
ALLIES: Britain, France, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Russia (1941), USA (1941)
AXIS POWERS: Germany, Japan, Italy
WWII Technology
Aircraft Carrier: transports planes overseas and refuelling
Artillery: fire large specific projectiles * improved
Atomic Bomb: Explosive device releasing large amounts of nuclear energy
Dive Bomber: Bombers that dives directly to targets
Fighter Plane: Air to Air combat
Long Range Bomber: Carries equipments/heavier bombs over long distances
Machine Gun: Flexible and light weight
Sub machine gun: shouldered light weapon and compact
Submarine: under water to attack boats in stealth
Tanks: Heavily armed vehicles for this “Mobile War”
Germany = Rhineland+Austria+Sudetenland+Czechoslovakia+Poland+France+Britain
WWII Battles
(1) 1940: FALL OF FRANCE
-France’s Maginot Line failed
-Germany just moved around it
-France captured, Maginot WASTE
6/25/1940 <- France surrendered
  1. 1940: Miracle of Dunkirk
-Britain tried to help but German Blitzkrieg too strong
Blitzkrieg: using every weapon possible
-German pushed Britain back
-Canadian ships came to rescue them away (300,000)
-5/27/1940 – 6/4/1940
  1. 1940: Battle of Britain
-July 10th, 1940: Hitler attacked Britain
-Luftwaffe successful at first, but invasion failed at the end
-Britain’s Royal Air Force was too strong
  1. 1941: Germany to Russia
-Operation Barbarossa
-6/22/1941 Hitler went to Russia
-Germany + Russia = largest empire
Failed: problem?
-Not used to cold weather
-Bad land
-land to land combat, not experienced
-building structure; after first explosion, building doesn’t damage
Battle of North Atlantic
-Throughout war, Canada protected ships traveling
-Ships carried food were protected
Major Canadian Chore Canadian Corvette ships protection
  1. War in the Pacific Rape of Nanking
-Dec 1937, Japanese captured Nanking
-Instead of just letting them surrender, 50,000 men were ordered to kill all captives
-through means of Rape, Torture, and separation.
  1. 1941 Pearl Harbour
-Surprise attack by Japanese Navy
-Hawaiian city of Pearl Harbour, where many boats were parked
US Joins war Dec 8 1941
Japan continued to take more countries in 1942 in the Pacific
  1. Battle of Hong Kong
-Christmas 1941, Canadians sent to protect HK people
-Britain under predicted the # of Japanese soldiers
-5000 predicted: 50,000 came
-290 casualties: most Prisoners of War Canadians kept in Japan
Prisoners of War: enemy teams come to country to be tortured or made to work
-WWII the later years
Dieppe Raid
-Canada wanted to take back France
-Germans ready before and killed soldiers
Most CDN died ever : 1400/5000 killed, 2000 prisoners
-1943 The italian Champaign
-Canada forced to help Russia against Italy
-9/9/1943, Canadians fought closely with Germans
-Building to Building compat
-Battle of Ortona
-House to house combat
Germans Surrendered 12/28/1943 in Ortona
-News reels: small movies of news played in theaters
The Liberation of Rome
-Canadians took sicily and pushed Germany away
-6/4/1944 Allies too back Rome
Effects from Italians
-Canadians won with High cost
-Italy surrendered in 7/10/1943 unconditionally
-German took charge
  1. Operation Overlord
-Allies wanted to take back France
-Atlantic Wall: complicated German defense system across beaches 1942-1944
Allied Plans:
-Confuse enemy of location (Juno Beach CDN @ Normandy)
-Stop enemy to have backup by Breaking Supply
-Take over English Channel
-Destroy Walls by bombing
D-Day – 6/6/1944
-dropped soldiers by paratrooping the night before
-Bombers attacked
-largest group of Canadian soldiers on Juno Beach
-5000/18000 casualties in 10 weeks. GERMANY SURRENDERED
  1. Liberation of Holland March/1945
-Canadians went to Holland and remove Nazi control
  1. Final Days
-Firedstorm bombing Germans to the point of breaking
-Nazi officials were beaten and hung
April 30th, Hitler commits suicide
VE DAY: MAY 8th, 1945, Allied soldiers WON
-Russia took over Berlin
-Canada liberated Netherlands
Final Days in the Pacific
  1. Bataan Death March
-Japanese made American and Philippine POWs March in hot weather, beheading, and random shooting. 90,000 soldiers
  1. Battle of the Midway 6/4/1942 to 6/7/1942
-USA and Japan wanted Midways Island for advantages in Air travel
-Biggest Air to Air combat goal to destroy aircraft carriers
-USA lost 1 AC and Japan lost 4 AC – USA victory
  1. USA Iwo Kima
-destroyed Japan’s surrounding islands pushing Japan to the centre
Japan refused to surrender and insisted on violence and aggression
  1. FINAL YEAR
Potsdam: US, Britain, China, demands Japan to surrender or attack
-Japan ignored
First USA Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima 8/6/1945 (little boy)
-140,000 killed from burns, radiation etc.
Second USA Atomic Bomb dropped on Nagasaki 8/9/1945 (fat man)
-killed 74,000
Japan Surrenders Sept 2nd 1945 <– VP Day Victory in Pacific
Canadian Homefront
Volunteers worked for reasons of:
-Defense of Canada/Britain
-Job after Depression
Contributions
-Soldiers, weapons, armor, and food
-Canada improved recruitment to make better quality Trained soldiers
Society
-Victory Bonds
-Conserved glass, rubber, metal, and paper
-Women Joined
-Men worked for lower wages
Gov’t
-CDN + USA <3
-new defense and economic alliances
-trade (King and Roosevelt)
Conscription
-Modified rule: National Resources Mobilization ACt
conscripted men for work at home only
-No war = work at home = zombies
1944 conscription occurred again, but people weren’t as angry
Behind the scenes
-Immigration of Jews stopped (jobs/money reasons)
Enemy allies:
JEWS
GERMANS: treated well
ITALIANS: monitored and asked to report
JAPANESE: taken out of homes into Prison without trial = internment camps
Women -> intern camps, men -> work
Holocaust
Anti Semitism: hatred against Jews (culture), or Judaism (religion)
Hitler’s solution: Kill all jews and unwanted people to make the aryan Germany
Stage1: Stripping of Rights
Stage2: Placement in Ghettos
Stage3: Concentration Camps
Stage4: Extermination
Stage1: -Jews identified with markings on clothing and passport
-Rights and businesses taken away from Jews
Stage2: -Jews left to starve
-Jews were scared so did as told
-Jews were lied and moved to concentration camps “better place”
Stage3: Concentration camps
-worked to make railways to transport more jews
Stage4: Death Camps
-Major Death camp at Auschwitz looked good at first
-Like normal, with Jews greeting them
-Entered, and split via Men and female/children
-Men put to work, Women/others Killed in Showers with gases
asked them to strip of all items, then die, items become profit
Others:
-Experiments of future medicine done to Jews where they died or suffered extreme pain
-6 Million Jews killed/5 Million others killed. 11 million people innocently killed.
Life in the 1950s
Cold war (1949 – 1989)
-Communism: Everything belongs to the country, government pays directly to people
-Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, North Korea, China, Cuba
-USA: Democracy: free to vote and make businesses at will
-Russia and USA had strong conflicts of communism and democratic capitalism
-Problem: both had strong nuclear weapons and natural resources
-They scared eachother with nuclear bombs because if one country used it, the  other will die also
-Igor Gazenko was a spy in Canada, Canada thought it would be attacked
1957- Russia launched a satellite into space: Sputnik, thought to be used for spying
1958- USA launched it’s satellite and formed NASA
-Nuclear Warfare
-Canadians taught to protect themselves during warfare
-Duck and cover
-Air-Raids were installed
-Built bomb shelters
-Canada/USA not war torn after the war. Businesses still functioned, no need for communism and government.
-Germany and European countries had their division of communism and democracy
-Germany divided into 2 parts, communism and democracy
-Berlin Wall: Berlin split into 2 using a wall
-Democrats isolated inside by communist Russians
-China’s Civil war for communism
-1940 Chiang Kai-Shek for Nationalist and Communist Mao Zedong
-Communists won, China a communist country
Korean War (1950-1953)
-Superpowers did not want to fight directly
-Civil war in korea sparked due to communism and capitalist conflicts
-North -> Communist -> Russia supported
-South -> Democratic -> USA Supported
-Massive casualties and Armistice 7/27 with USA consulting UN. No result
Vietnam War (1959 – 1975)
-Communist North and Democratic South Vietnam
-CAD did not join, knew there’s going to be no outcome. Many went with USA
-Americans fled to Canada to avoid war after
-First war seen in media. Led to the Hippies generation to simply promote peace
-North succeeded, Americans left.
1950s 1960s
Soldiers returned and European countries wanted many Canadian products
Canada built many city improvements and many mega projects
High school drop outs were high as people went on to make plenty of kids
-Baby boomer caused many things
-Employment rates and opportunities grew
-Accommodation/homes rates grew
-New businesses
-Women stayed home a lot
-Cost of living extremely low
Lifestyle:
Men:
-Gelled hair
-Jeans
-Casual/colourful clothing and converse shoes
Women
-Mothers clothing
-casual long skirts
-high heels
-long curly hair
Teenagers
-clean thoughts, obeys rules, neutral emotions
Music
-Bubble Gum Music
-Sweet, nice lyrics
-post WWII feelings
-wholesome singers
1960s
Cultures
Music
-Beatles – English Pop/rock band
-Rolling Stones – English drumming band
-Neil Young – Canadian drummer
-Jimi Hendricks – Guitarist
Movies
-To kill a Mocking Bird
-Sounds of Music
Overall Peaceful and relaxed mood in the 1960s to promote peace and hippy movement
Gov’t and rights styles
Chinese allowed to vote
Women equal wages as men
USA Civil Rights Movement
-Movement to challenge racism Blacks vs Whites
-Slavery Abolishment
-Martin Luther King Jr led many anti racism acts
French English Relations
October Crisis
FLQ and separatists wanted independence from Quebec and created the Front de Liberation de Quebec
10/5/1970 – James Cross meets Canada from Britain
-Kidnapped by FLQ
-Demanded freedom
10/10/1970 – Minister of Labour vice president Pierre Laporte
-Kidnapped after leaving an anti FLQ conference
10/15/1970 – FLQ gain support from public meetings
-planned rally this evening
-laporte and cross still missing, undercovers arranged
10/17/1970 -Laporte found dead in a car trunk
-wanted $500,000 in gold, public broadcast and passing of FLQ prisoners
Trudeau used war measures act to use full control and arrest french people, shutting down the FLQ
Rene Levesque: Quebecois party leader who politically pushed for independence
Just Society
Massey Report
-William Massey said that Canada is losing it’s unique culture
-Said Canada should put more money into improving it’s culture
-Arts etc. But not everyone had equal or fair support
UN: purpose: International peace and safety after WWII not a government
-After failure of the league of nations
-Democracy, Free trade, Share world economy, reduce weapon counts
-Human rights, Clear land mines, environment, disease, poverty, terrorism
Security councils
-USSR, USA, China, France
General Assemblies – other countries
Peacekeeping – no violence to keep peace
Peacemaking – use violence to defend other countries