CHC2D Grade 10 History WWI Test

Academic History grade 10 unit one WWI test notes CHC2D1 CHC2D1

Primary/Secondary Sources

– Primary sources are the first evidence of something happening or the introduction of an idea

– Primary sources are usually created right after the event or during the event

– Secondary sources are created a long time after the event

– Secondary sources provide opinions, arguments, and interpretations of the event with primary sources as supporting evidence

WWI Country Backgrounds

– Great Britain was the wealthiest due to the exploitation of its colonies

– GB possessed the greatest navy (since they were an island), and was a democracy at the time

– Germany was led by Kaiser Wilhem, and at the time, Germany was an absolute monarchy

– Germany was in a naval race with Britain, and wanted more colonies

– Though Germany had the strongest (not largest) army, they were always keeping an eye out for France

– This is because the French wanted Alsace-Loraine (a piece of land between France and Germany), which was taken by the Germans during the 1870 Franco Prussian war

– France was a democracy at the time and had the second best army

– Their main goal was to get Alsace-Loraine back from Germany

– Austria-Hungary was led by emperor Franz Joseph

– There were many nationalists in Austria-Hungary who wanted power and independence

– This resulted in tearing the country apart

– The two most dominant groups in the country were the Germans (Austrians) and the Hungarians

– Other notable groups in Austria-Hungary were the: Polish, Serbians, Croats, Romanians, and Italians

– Since Austria-Hungary did not allow minority groups to have power, terrorist groups were formed

– Russia was led by Tsar (also known as Czar) Nicholas II

– Least developed country of the 5, but had the largest army

– Italy was the smallest power in the war because it only received independence a few years earlier

WWI Causes

– Remember MAIN

– M is Militarism

– A is Alliances

– I is Imperialism

– N is Nationalism

– Militarism is the building of military strengths, which caused suspicion amongst other countries

– This ultimately led to an arms race

– Alliances were created so other countries would protect one another, and provided strength in numbers

– This meant if one country went to war, the others would follow

– The most notable alliances were the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance

– Triple Entente: Russia, Britain, and France

– Triple Alliance: Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary

– Imperialism is the policy of controlling land from far away

– Having colonies allowed more raw materials and resources for manufacturing

– Britain had the most colonies which caused jealousy amongst the other countries

– Nationalism is the loyalty of people to their nation

– Most notable in Austria-Hungary because there were many minorities who wanted to form their own nation

– Immediate cause of WWI was the assassination of Franz Ferdinand (son of the leader of Austria-Hungary)

– Flow Chart: European countries built empires – Colonies supplied raw materials – This led to jealousy among other countries – Fear caused powers to the arms race – Powers also formed alliances – All this caused conflict – The spark to the war was the assassination of the arch duke Franz Ferdinand

The Black Hand

– Serbian terrorist group

– Left black gloves at the scenes of their crimes

– assassinated Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand

– Minority group in Austria-Hungary who wanted independence

– Had to resort to terrorism to be noticed

The Summer of 1914

– June 28, 1914: Franz Ferdinand is assassinated at Sarajevo in Bosnia, province of Austria-Hungary

– July 23, 1914: Austria-Hungary blames Serbia and issues an ultimatum

– July 25, 1914: Serbia replies to the ultimatum by rejecting it

– July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

– July 29, 1914: Russia mobilizes its troops to protect Serbia, and Germany declares war on Russia

– August 3, 1914: France declares war on Germany in advance of Germany declaring war on France

– August 4, 1914: Germany invades Belgium to attack France, however Belgium was a neutral country (Germany, Britain, and France agreed Belgium could not be used in war)

– Since Germany broke the agreement, Britain declares war on Germany

– August 5, 1914: Canada and the rest of the British Empire enter the war

– **Italy left the Triple Alliance and fought most of the war on the side of the Triple Entente**

– **Japan also fought Germany in WWI**

The Von Schlieffen Plan

– German general Von Schlieffen believed he could mislead the French and attack them from behind

– He knew that Russia would take a long time to get to France to help defend them from Germany, so he wanted to eliminate France quickly

– France was the largest threat to the Germans because they wanted Alsace-Loraine back, and had the second greatest army

– He thought in 6 weeks, he would trick the French to gather at the border of Germany, while the Germans went through Belgium and into Paris

– Since Belgium was a neutral country, Britain attacked the Germans

– The flaw with the German plan was that they thought Britain wouldn’t mind them passing through neutral territory

– Von Schlieffen died in 1915, but his plan lived on

– As a result of this failed plan, the Germans nearly eliminated themselves from the war

Trenches

– The Enemy – Soldiers were roughly the same age, and sometimes trenches were so close, soldiers could hear the enemy talking

– Lookout Point (SAP) – Soldier at the lookout point 24/7, and to stay awake at night, the soldier on duty would put their bayonet under their chin so they would feel pain if they went to sleep

– No Man’s Land – Doesn’t belong to anyone, where battles occur, and was covered in barbed wire and landmines

– Barbed Wire – Really thick and set up like a maze (so it’s difficult to get around) and was used for protection

– Machine Gun Nest – Where MGs are stored and the MG was the most deadly weapon of WWI

– Trench Mortar – Where heavy ammunition is kept/stored

– Latrine – A box to go to the bathroom, and the box would be dumped over the trench when full, but rain would bring the contents back into the trench

– Communication Trench – Used to bring food to troops and transfer messages back and forth

Technology in WWI

– Airplanes were only used for reconnaissance at the beginning of the war, but were eventually equipped with MGs

– Airplanes were more effective by the end of the war

– Fights between 2 planes were called dog fights, and an ace was a person who shot down 5 or more planes

– Canada’s greatest ace was Billy Bishop who shot down 72 planes, while Germany’s greatest ace was Manfred Von Richthofen (more commonly known as the Red Baron) who shot down 80 planes

– Canadian Roy Brown eventually took down the Red Baron

– Artillery (bombs and weapons of the like) was fast and caused a lot of destruction

– Was also able to be launched into the enemy trench with very little risk

– Cavalry was useless during WWI because they could not function in mud or trenches

– Chlorine gas was deadly but depended on wind direction

– Unlucky winds could cause the gas to kill your own soldiers, and soldiers would urinate on cloths and cover their face to prevent the gas from killing them

– The Dreadnought was useful for transporting supplies but was an easy target for submarines

– Flamethrowers were practically useless in WWI because they could not reach to the enemy trenches

– Only useful if attacking enemies up close

– Machine gun was the most important weapon in trench warfare, because it was fast, easy to reload, and fired at a long range

– Fired many rounds of ammunition without stopping and were heavy so they were placed on stands

– The tank was useless at first because it would get stuck in mud, but was eventually developed towards the end of the war

– Repeating rifles were able to shoot long distances but were very hard to reload because mud would cause the rifle to jam

– Submarines were very effective because they destroyed supply ships

Ypres (Belgium)

– Important as a railway and communications centre

– During October and November of 1914

– Allies vs. Germans

– By winter, 200 000 soldiers died

– Canadians held their ground against heavy German attack

– First use of chlorine gas by the Germans

– 5200 Canadians died from the gas

– Canadians stayed while soldiers from other countries fled

– Canadians gained the reputation of being courageous

Battle of the Somme (France)

– Germans wanted to defeat France

– In Verdun, the French lost 460 000 soldiers while the Germans lost 300 000 soldiers

– On July 1st, 1916, General Haig ordered troops to go over the top

– Britain and Canada had 57 500 casualties because of Haig’s mistake

– 1.25 million men died for 12 km

– Known as the most deadly battle for Canadians

– At Courcelette, the allies lost 620 000 men, while the Germans lost 60 000

Battle of Vimy Ridge (France)

– Known as the greatest battle Canadians fought

– First time Canadians went into a battle as a unit

– Canadians were able to take Vimy Ridge, which the French and British were unable to do

– Arthur Currie and Julian Byng came up with a strategy to capture Vimy Ridge

– Canadians practiced many times and spied on the German defenses

– Germans called April 2nd to April 9th the week of suffering

– The plan was executed to perfection by Canadians and Vimy Ridge had been taken in less than 2 hours

– Canadians seized over 60 km squared of territory, captured 54 guns, 104 trench mortars, 124 MGs, over 4000 prisoners of war, and lost 3500 men

Passchendaele (Belgium)

– 2 objectives of the offensive: take control of German submarine bases in Belgium, and boost the declining morale of the French

– Haig planned the offensive and the bombs caused mud to be everywhere

– October rains made the mud even harder for troops to get through

– Many soldiers were stuck in the mud

– Haig wanted Canadians to be more aggressive, but Currie did not want to lost Canadian lives without gain

– The mud swallowed artillery platforms, guns, railways, cars, and soldiers

– Food and water easily spoiled because of the mud

– Germans began to use mustard gas

– Almost 16 000 Canadians died in this battle for 6 km

– Both sides sustained 460 000 casualties

Propaganda

– The process of persuading people to believe in an idea or ideas

– In WWI propaganda was used to recruit more soldiers, get people in Canada to conserve more, encourage people to help out in any way they could, and make people despise the Germans

– Propaganda was used through posters and used various methods to help make people believe in what the government wanted them to believe

Life in the Trenches

– Life for soldiers in the trenches were difficult because they would always be wet, there would be lice and pests, and there would be explosions and guns that made living for soldiers tough

– No Man’s Land was the land in between trenches

– Men would stay in trenches for 48 hours then exchange with others

– After 4 days, they would rest for 4 days then return

– Soldiers were unable to get rid of lice because they did not have access to clean or new clothes

– Trench foot was when the feet swelled and became deformed

– Soldiers prevented trench foot by rubbing whale oil on their feet

The Homefront

– People in Canada were able to help the Canadian war effort by reducing food consumption, producing more food, and recruiting future soldiers

– Women helped the war effort by working more, some of them became nurses, they donated, recruited more people, and made clothes for men

– Saving bonds, thrift stamps, and taxes were used to help raise money for the Canadian war effort

– Munitions factories, farmers, and women began producing more to send overseas and help the Canadians

Conscription

– Conscription was mandatory enlistment in the Canadian armed forces for men between the ages of 20 and 45

– Prime Minister Borden wanted conscription so there would be enough Canadians to make up for the casualties of war

– In 1917, Borden passed two acts that would ensure he win the election to put conscription into place; the War-Time Elections Act and the Military Voters Act

– War-Time Elections Act: women related to soldiers or nurses were allowed to vote, and enemy aliens were not allowed to vote

– Military Voters Act: soldiers were able to vote in any riding, so Borden could manipulate them to win the election

– English people in Canada were for conscription, while French people in Canada were against conscription

Russian Revolution

– Russia’s government weakening

– Tsar Nicholas was overthrown

– Bolsheviks (communists) were led by Vladimir Lenin

– Russia surrenders to Germany in January, 1918

Canada’s 100 Days

– Canadians spearheaded Hindenburg (9074 casualties) and Canal Du Nord (11400 casualties)

– 130 km gained in 100 days, while 3 years were fought for 12 km

– America joined in 1917

– Germany was near collapse

– Canadians didn’t leave Europe after the war ended to keep peace

Armistice & Statistics

– Agreement to end fighting

– November 11, 11am, 1918

– Allied and German representative

– 1914 to 1918, 60 000 Canadians killed, 250 000 Canadians wounded, and 30 million casualties in entire war

Paris Peace Conference

– Allied leaders met in Paris but Canada only had 2 non voting seats

The League of Nations

– President Woodrow Wilson

– Punished aggressive nations

– Led to Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles

– Mainly applied to Germany

– Took away Germany’s wealth and army

– Germany owed 30 billion dollars to European countries

– Ultimately led to WWII

Life in the 1920s

– Many new electrical and household inventions

– Lots of slang

– Fashion revolution

– Many dances, such as the shimmy, waltz, tango, etc.

– Many public activities because everyone was happy that the war was over

– Lots of sports, such as hockey, football, curling, golf, etc.

– Prohibition occured in 1916 for Ontario

– Many people brewed their own beers, but some were fatal

– New methods of transportation, such as railway, automobile, streetcar, etc.

– Most popular car was the Model T

– Was relatively cheap, but of poor quality

Notes derived from the CHC2D1 course CHC2D1 CHC2D1 CHC2D1 CHC2D1