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CHC2D Exam Review 2013-2014
1. What is the difference between primary and secondary evidence?
Primary evidence was created at the time of the event, where as secondary evidence was created after the fact.
2. Who was the Prime Minister of Canada during WWI?
3. Who was the commander of the Canadian Corps?
4. List the major details of the following battles: Somme, Ypres, Vimy Ridge, Passchendaele
Ypres (2nd battle) – 1915
– First battle to involve Canadians
– First time poison gas was used as a weapon in war (Germany)
– Marks the start of Total War
– Canadians began to be respected as fighters
Somme – 1916
– Very little land taken in a five month battle, one million dead
– Tank introduced
– Volunteer numbers decreased as casualties increased
– Canadians continued to gain respect
Vimy Ridge – 1917
– Germans had captured a ridge in France however Allied troops failed to recapture it
– 80 000 Canadian troops formed a Canadian Corps for the first time
– Canadians knocked out 83% of the German artillery
– Canadian Corps advanced four and a half kilometres in a few hours, largest advance on – Western front since 1914
! 3 days total, 3500 Canadians dead
Passchendaele – 1917
– Natural drainage systems were destroyed, rain drenched and swamped fields, trenches – were destroyed and were in terrible conditions
– 30 000 + casualties
Arthur Currie thought it was Canada’s biggest victory – Passchendaele Ridge was captured in the end
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5. Describe the impact of new military technologies on the war: machine gun, airplane, tank
**Most significant weapon in the war**
– Were set up primarily at trenches and were used to shoot at inbound men at 400 rpm
– Main reason why the war was a stalemate and defensive
– Many many many deaths
– Very little effect in terms of war position, but pilots were seen as heroes since they risked – their lives in the sky
– Dogfight winners were rewarded in public
! Airplanes were originally used for the collection of information
First used in Battle of the Somme
– Not that effective, very little impact
6. What was the Russian Revolution and how did it impact the war and Canada?
Russian Revolution – Czar Nicholas II was Russia’s terrible leader and made them terribly prepared for the war
– Caused Russia to drop out of the war
– Made Russia communist after overthrowing
– **Increased fear of communism in Canada**
7. Know the countries in each of the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente.
Triple Entente – Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance – Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungarian Empire
8. What was an Enemy Alien? Describe their treatment during WWI.
Enemy Aliens were people who originated from the Triple Alliance (Germans, Italians, Austro- Hungarians) living in Canada. Due to the War Measures Act, the government was able to treat them poorly – they were required to carry ID and report to authorities regularly, were banned from owning weapons, media in their languages was banned, the right to vote was revoked, and in the end many were arrested and were sent to camps or prison.
9. Conscription was a major issue during WWI. Describe the controversy and importance of the Conscription Election of 1917.
Conscription was such an important issue during WWI because it divided French and English speaking Canadians. English Canadians felt that they were loyal to Britain and therefore had to fight in their war and therefore were for conscription, however French Canadians believed they owed Britain (and France) nothing and they were their own country, and were against
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conscription. The election in 1917 had nothing to do with political beliefs; it was only to vote parties based on preference to conscription. A vote for Robert Borden (Union) was for conscription, and a vote for Wilfred Laurier (Liberal) was against conscription. More English Canadians than French Canadians – conscription won.
10. Explain the significance of the Treaty of Versailles: What was it? What impact did it have on the map of Europe? How did it impact future conflicts? What did it mean for Canadian independence from Britain?
– Was a treaty signed by UK, US, France and Germany in Versailles, France
– Said that Germany was liable for all damages in WWI, had to pay reparations
– Germany’s military became restricted (no airforce, tanks, submarines, < 100 000 men) – US proposed a League of Nations that would encourage peace amongst nations
– Later around WWII Hitler felt that Germany was mistreated at the treaty and fuelled his – rampage in Europe
– New countries formed after: Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Finland, Poland, USSR…
***First document that Canada signed independent of Britain: step towards complete ! Canadian independence
11. What was prohibition? How did it impact Windsor? What was bootlegging?
“Prohibition” was when the consumption of alcohol was banned after WWI. At the time, Windsor was known as the “Great Funnel”; an estimated $120 million of illegal liquor crossed the border between Windsor and Detroit. Bootlegging was
It impacted Windsor because back then Windsor was called The Great Funnel. It was estimated that $120 million of illegal liquor crossed the border. Bootlegging was an
illegal traffic in liquor in violation of legislative restriction on its manufacture, sale, or transportation.
12. What was the Persons case? Describe the case and explain its significance.
The Persons case was when five women challenged the definition of a “Person” in the British North America Act (Canada’s “Constitution” at the time). Two of these women, Emily Murphy and Alice Jamieson, were magistrates and Jamieson had her ruling challenged on the grounds that women were not “Persons”. The Alberta court said that women are, the Supreme Court said that they aren’t, however in the end the Privy Council in England overruling Canada at the time said that they are, resulting in a change of the definition of a person. Significant for women’s rights.
13. Describe the changing social norms of the 1920s regarding women, including Flappers. Flappers were young women in the 1920s, who rebelled the “old way” of doing things. They did this by cutting their hair short, wearing brightly coloured clothes (shorts, dresses), short hemline dresses (to the knees), emphasis on straight lines (masculine). They used lots of makeup, as the lipstick tube was invented in 1915. They wanted to look like boyish women. They attended dances and other mixed social events, spent a lot of time in cars (freedom and privacy) and smoked and drank.
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14. Describe the events that led to the Great Depression.
- – Easy Credit: Many families lived above their means due to credit/financed purchasing;when creditors demanded their money back many couldn’t afford to pay and lost what they
- – hadA Lack of Financial Regulation: People bought stocks on credit and even banks invested in
the stock market; once the market crashed banks weren’t being paid their money and had
- – to close, with people losing their savingsCanada’s Reliance on Exports
**STOCK MARKET CRASH: BLACK TUESDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1929
– Also – Agricultural crash: Poor farming practices, drought, grasshoppers that ate
vegetation, disease (rust) — wheat sold for $1.65 a bushel in 1928 and sold for $0.28 in ! 1932
15. Which Prime Minister caught most of the blame for the lingering effects of the Depression?
R. B. Bennett
16. Describe the changing politics of the Depression: CCF, Social Credit, Union Nationale, On-To-Ottawa Trek.
- – CCF – Cooperative Commonwealth Federation — a socialist party that wanted toreorganized the economy against capitalism in favour of an economy for the benefit of all
- – (won 7 seats)Social Credit – Lead by “Bible Bill” — believed that Canada’s economic problems were due
- – to underconsumption and could be fixed by “social dividends”, elected premier of AlbertaUnion National — Promised to defend French language, religion, culture against English
- – Canada, won the Quebec election with support from rural citizens and small businesses
– – –
A thousand men boarded freight trains and headed towards Ottawa, demanding to talk to the PM
Bennett feared that the trekkers were communist revolutionaries, and demanded the RCMP to stop them in Regina
Ended in a bloody riot in Regina
On-To-Ottawa Trek — R.B. Bennett put men in work camps, but these men decided that the government wasn’t listening to their complains so they went on strike
17. Give examples of some of the ways Canadians tried to help end the Depression or cope with its effects.
– Many moved in with extended family
– Some rely on charities
– Neighbours pull together
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18. What were “relief” payments? Describe some of the things one had to do to qualify for them.
The government decides to provide money to the provinces for assistance. These “relief” payments are nicknamed “The Dole.” To qualify, you had to have no family that could help you and have no assets (e.g. you’d have to sell your car to get payments). The government also put men in work camps, where single unemployed men worked far from the cities doing physical labour for $0.20 an hour. The conditions were poor.
19. Explain the role of the following in Canadian independence from Britain: Halibut treaty, Chanak Crisis, Statute of Westminster.
– Halibut Treaty – Canada signed a treaty about fishing rights with the US, the first time
– Canada negotiated with the US without British involvement
– Chanak Crisis – Canada says that it will no longer automatically support British wars ! Statute of Westminster – British dominions declared to be self-governing
20. Know the countries in each of the Axis and the Allies.
Axis – Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria
Allied – Canada, UK, US, France, USSR, China, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia, Belgium…
21. How long after Britain did Canada declare war on Germany?
22. Who was the Prime Minister of Canada during WWII?
William Lyon Mackenzie King
23. How was Canada involved in the Manhattan Project? What was the Manhattan Project? The Manhattan Project was a top secret project to build an atomic bomb. Thousands of scientists were involved and it costed millions of dollars. Canada contributed with lab space and uranium. The first atomic bomb was eventually dropped on Hiroshima, Japan in 1945. !
24. Describe the efforts on the home front in Canada and describe how they helped the Allies win the war.
– People worked in manufacturing jobs creating supplies for the Allies
– Certain food was rationed so that food could be sent to the troops
– Other food items, such as apples and lobster, were surplus and were “patriotic”
25. Specifically, how did women contribute on the home front during WWII?
With so many men absent from home in the armed forces and with industries pushing
for more production, the Canadian government actively urged women to work in the
war effort. Some women had to do jobs in manufacturing, helping create goods for
the Allied troops.
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26. How did Mackenzie King successfully deal with the issue of conscription during WWII? Be sure to include the National Resources Mobilization Act in your answer.
When Canada declared war in 1940 against Germany, King promised not to use conscription. However, in 1940 he enacted the NRM Act, which allowed him to conscript men and women to work for jobs necessary for the war effort (manufacturing, home defence), but did not allow them to be sent to overseas fronts.
27. Describe the experience of Japanese Canadians during WWII.
In BC, where 22 000 people of Japanese descent lived, there was already a feeling of resentment towards the success of the Japanese in the West Coast – they were not allowed to vote, teach or work in the government. When Pearl Harbour, Hawaii was attacked, the racial hostility increased tenfold. Although they were deemed to be no threat by the RCMP, they were attacked both physically and in the media; their businesses were boycotted. Some third generation Canadians with no loyalty to Japan were treated worse than recent German immigrants.
– Ottawa took action and sent all Japanese men without Canadian citizenship to internment – camps away from the coast
Eventually all Japanese descendants, even those with Canadian citizenship, were put in – internment camps – “No Japs from the Rockies to the Sea”
Families were spread throughout BC and Alberta with the fathers doing labour and – mothers and children living in makeshift houses without electricity or running water
After the war, the Japanese didn’t get their property back and over 4000 were deported ! before 1947 – they only got relief payments of a mere $20 000 (survivors only) in 1988
28. Be able to describe the major details of each of the following WWII battles and discuss the role of Canadians: Battle of Britain, Hong Kong, Dieppe, D-Day, Netherlands.
Battle of Britain – “Operation Sea Lion”, June to September 1940, German invasion on
Britain, an all air raid (only involved the Air Force)
– More than 100 Canadians participated and 23 died, Canadians served in Bomber and
coastal command, RAF squadrons and serviced planes
Hong Kong – In 1941 Britain possessed HK, two Canadian units were sent to aid the defence of Hong Kong, however 50 000 Japanese troops attacked Hong Kong and took “no prisoners”
The British surrendered on December 25, 1941 after the Japanese invaded HK and many prisoners were sent to Japan or Korea to do work
300 Canadians were killed during the battle, another 250 died in Prisoner of War camps
Dieppe – Raid in August 1942, an allied invasion on Dieppe, that the Axis had captured
– Before Allies reached the bridge, Germans raked them with tank and machine gun fire, – and ships were sunk before landing
– Very unsuccessful
5000 Canadians (including Essex Scottish from Windsor), 1000 killed, 500 wounded, 200 taken as Prisoners of War
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– D-Day – Allied full scale invasion to take back Europe, June 6, 1944
– – –
Dieppe proved Allies were ready; they needed a good beach and chose Normandy in France
Canada landed on Juno Beach
Allies confused the Germans
Was considered success at a great cost; 15 000 Canadians participated with 1074 casualties
– Netherlands – Allied attack to reclaim Netherlands from Germany, 1945
– Canadians liberated major Dutch cities such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hague – They feared the Germans would blow up sea walls
– 200 000 Canadians and tons of soldiers were under Canadian command
– Canadian command negotiated cease fire
! – **Germany surrendered here to a Canadian commander**
29. What was the holocaust? Be able to explain the death camp system and identify Auschwitz.
The holocaust was a mass genocide by the Nazi Germany military on primarily Jews, however many other groups of people were targeted (including Slavs). Nazis believed that Germans were descendants of the Aryan master race and they were the rightful rulers of the world, and that Jews and Slavs were ‘subhuman’. After invading Poland and capturing 3 million Jews, Germans started to rip people out of their homes and put them in ghettoes. After capturing more and more Jews and other Europeans, the Nazis devised a plan to murder 12 000 000 Europeans – they created a system of labour, concentration and extermination camps connected by rail.
Those who could work were put into labour, while those who couldn’t were killed immediately. They filled up gas chambers (and gave prisoners false hope and pretended they were shower rooms for them to cleanse before deporting) with people until no more could fit, and released a poisonous Zyklon B gas killing everyone in the chamber.
Auschwitz was one of the most infamous camps, where over 1 million people were murdered – 2000 could be gassed at once.
In the end, 2/3 of the Jews in Europe were killed, 12 000 000 people total, 6 000 000 Poles
30. What international organization was created at the end of WWII?
31. Who was Igor Gouzenko and why is he important to Canadian history?
Igor Gouzenko was a clerk who revealed 109 top secret documents that would prove that the Soviet Union was operating spy rings in Canada. According to him, the Soviets were trying to
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steal the technology used to create the atomic bomb, and were doing the same to the US and UK. Many Canadians had been deeply suspicious of Communist intentions for years, and this only furthered that fear. The Gouzenko Affair became a symbol for the beginning of the Cold War.
32. What was the Avro Arrow and why was it scrapped?
The Avro Arrow was an advanced supersonic, twin-engine, all-weather interceptor jet aircraft. Within two month of the project cancellation, all aircraft, engines, production tooling and technical data were ordered scrapped. The official reason was that it was too expensive and no longer worth the money. The same day the first Arrow was created, the Russians put the first man made object in space (opposing sides of Cold War) — the Avro Arrow sparked a long political debate.
33. Who was the Prime Minister at the time?
34. Explain Canada’s role in: the Korean War, Vietnam War, Suez Crisis.
Korean War – After WWII, Korea was occupied: Soviets occupied the North (communist) while the US occupied the South (democracy)
– In 1950 the North invaded the South and is initially successful
– The UN sends troops from 15 countries to help stabilize the front back at 38th parallel – **27 000 Canadians participated
Vietnam War – Canada did not participate and the US was upset
– Canadian businesses exported $2.5 billion of war materials and $10 billion in food to
the US helping their effort; Canadian unemployment dropped to 3.9%
Suez Crisis – Lester B. Pearson won a Nobel Peace Prize for his mediation between all parties involved in the Suez Crisis
Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal company, France declared war against Egypt and Britain decided to send troops as peacekeepers; US president didn’t want this and strongly urged the US to avoid force
Canada was in a perfect position to find a middle ground between everyone, however he was failing and it looked like the world was going to war
Pearson resolved the issues over four sleepless days
35. Which Canadian diplomat and future Prime Minister won a Nobel Peace Prize? Why?
Lester B. Pearson won a Nobel Peace Prize, for resolving the Suez Crisis.
36. What was NATO and what was Canada’s role in it?
NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and was signed by US, Canada, Britain, France and eight other nation in 1949. All members agreed to contribute military units to a new NATO defence force, intended to discourage Soviet expansion into Western Europe. Canada
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convinced the US to sign, and hoped that it would give Canada a greater say in shaping US defence policy.
37. What was the Cuban Missile Crisis and how did it strain relations between Canada and the USA?
Cuban communist forces had overthrown the pro-American government in Cuba and the USSR started to aid Cuba. The US found out that Soviet missiles were being installed in Cuba. The issue was that Canada did not want to immediately comply with the US’s request to move Canadian forces to an alert status. As Soviet ships approached they finally complied, ready to defeat Soviets if they attacked. This made an already unstable relationship with the US Kennedy government even more unstable. The crisis ended on October 28 when the USSR removed the missiles from Cuba.
38. What was the Quiet Revolution? Identify the premier of Quebec who instigated it, and describe some of the major changes in the province at this time.
In 1960, Quebec voted for Liberal Jean Lesage to begin a rapid reform in the province. In the sixties, Quebeckers challenged social and cultural traditions, political authorities, and the importance of religion and agriculture. Many began to call themselves Quebecois instead of Canadiens; while they wanted to stay in Canada they demanded a new, equal partnership as a founding nation of Canada. Major changes included:
– Secularization and Modernism: people moved away from Church and agriculture to the
– – Lower marriage rates and lower birth rate
39. What two superpowers engaged in the Cold War? On whose side was Canada?
The US and USSR engaged in the Cold War. Canada was on the US side.
40. Discuss the threat of nuclear war and its effect on civilian in Canada (duck and cover drills, bomb shelters, mutually assured destruction).
41. Describe Canada’s role in the following as they apply to the Cold War: Bomarc Missiles, NATO.
– Bomarc Missiles – Canada accepted nuclear missiles while under the Liberal government – NATO – Canada was a founding nation in NATO and convinced the US to join
Educational Reform and Investment: At the time, English Canadians held the highest rank jobs in the province while the Quebecois had lower ranks; the Liberals changed this such that the Quebecois would “masters in our own house”
Education was placed in provincial control, an emphasis was placed on business and science, applied and practical studies
More Quebecois than ever began completing elementary school and going to university
Political Reorganization: Province took control of health care and utilities (Hydro-Quebec) – John Lesage pressed for “special status” for Quebec, feeling they needed more powers
to protect its language and culture
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42. Who became Prime Minister in 1968?
Pierre Elliot Trudeau
43. What was the FLQ crisis? be able to explain the goals of the FLQ, their actions in the 1970, and the government response (including the use of the War Measures Act).
The Front de Liberation de Quebec was created in 1963 with the goal of achieving independence for Quebec by any means necessary. They believed that “The dignity of the Quebec people demands independence… independence is only possible through social revolution…”
– October 5th, 1970: FLQ kidnapped British diplomat James Cross, demanding $500 000 in gold, a passage abroad, for their manifesto to be read on the radio and 23 FLQ members to be released from jail — the government refused
– October 10th, 1970: Quebec vice premier Pierre Laporte is kidnapped
– Quebec asked Ottawa for help; PM Trudeau evokes the War Measures Act – October 17th, 1970: Pierre Laporte found dead in the trunk of a car
– FLQ leaders were caught, tried and convicted; FLQ dissolves
– Violent separation has since subsided, more political means are adopted !
44. What issue led to feelings of resentment in Alberta in the 1970s? (Trudeau’s National Energy Program, Energy Crisis)
– Energy Crisis: high oil prices and substantially decreased oil supply
– NEP – (1) security and supply and ultimate independence from the world market, (2) the
opportunity for all Canadians to participate in the energy industry (particularly oil and gas)
and to share in the benefits of its expansion and (3) fairness with a pricing and revenue – sharing regime which recognizes the needs and rights of all Canadians
The program was extremely unpopular in Western Canada, especially Alberta (where most of Canada’s oil is produced)
– They were not governed by the Liberals
– They felt that NEP was at their expense in benefitting the eastern provinces
– They felt that the federal government was intruding in provincial matters (natural resources are dealt with by provinces individually)
45. What was the White Paper? Explain why it angered many aboriginal groups.
The White Paper was issued by the Trudeau government in 1969, voiding all previous aboriginal treaties on the basis that treaties could only be signed between sovereign nations, not groups within Canada. It angered many aboriginal Canadians because they went back to being treated unfairly.
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46. Constitution Act of 1982. Be able to describe the process through which it was completed. Why did many in Quebec feel disrespected?
After being re-elected in 1980, Trudeau wanted to change the Canadian constitution, allowing Canada to pass bills if all provinces agreed without British approval, and create a charter guaranteeing the right to education in English and French. At first, only Ontario and New Brunswick agreed, while the other eight premiers did not. Endless negotiation occurred, until a midnight meeting on November 5th — the premiers were awakened for a last minute discussion. The Quebec premier was not staying at the same hotel as the other nine premiers, and therefore was left out of the negotiations. He woke up to find that a new constitution had been negotiated without him. The constitution passed the House of Commons and was signed and returned to Canada by the Queen by April 1982, however Quebec did not sign the constitution until Robert Bourassa became premier five years later.
47. Explain the events and significance of: James Bay Agreement, Oka, Ipperwash.
– Involves a land claim
– Native group occupies park, upset that their land wasn’t returned
James Bay Agreement
– The Quebec government wanted large tracts of land in northern Quebec to build – hydroelectric plants
A deal was made with native groups — the government gave Inuit and Cree groups $225 ! million and hunting and fishing rights on the land to be surrendered to Quebec
Oka Crisis (1990)
– Municipal officials in Oka, Quebec decided to allow a golf course to be developed on
– Native burial grounds on a local reserve: the Mohawk nation was angry
– The group blocked off all roads in and out of the reserve
– Quebec police confronted the group, one officer was shot and killed
– Canadian Armed Forces were called in to remove the barricades and quell the disturbance ! The crisis helped raise awareness of aboriginal issues
48. Describe the impact of: Official Bilingualism, Official Multiculturalism, Changes to the Immigration policy including the points system.
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism: 1963 – 1969
– Response to unrest amongst French Canadians, who called for protection of their language – and culture, more political opportunities
– Pierre Trudeau was the Prime Minister at the time
– Examined how bilingual the government was, “equal partnership”
Francophones were underrepresented in government; French had trouble getting government service in French
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– What changed: Changes made to French education in all 9 Anglophone provinces, New Brunswick became officially bilingual, Official Languages Act 1969; federal government
Three definitions: A society composed of many different ethnicities, the ideal of quality and respect between cultures and **an official government policy of 1971**
– Policy officially recognizes and promotes diversity
Immigration Act of 1976 (Came into effect in 1978)
– Eliminates prohibited classes (groups that were denied entry)
– Created four new classes of immigrants (Refugees, Families, Assisted relatives, – Independent immigrants), only individuals need the point system
Business class created in 1980
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