CHC2D Grade 10 Academic History – WW1 Major Battles

Thanks, Gagan!

Major Battles of WWI

Second Battle of Ypres:

-April 1915

-first involvement of Canadian soldiers in WWI

-6 000 Canadian soldiers died

-Canadians join British/French fighting

-Canadians stopped the German advance

-earned respect from both allies and the Germans

-historical significance: Canada gained reputation for being a “Shock Troop”

-Shock Troop: able to take and absorb any pressure or attack

-Germans used a new weapon: chlorine, mustard gas

-the chlorine, mustard gas which was poisonous caused eyes and lungs to burn, victims to choke and gag and suffocate to death

-both sides launched gas, both sided began equipping their troops with gas masks

-the gas was not a successful weapon because if the wind changed a gas attack could backfire and harm the troops that started the attack

The Somme:

-July to November 1916

-AKA “The Big Push”

-France, Britain, Canada against Germany

-24 000 Canadian soldiers died

-allies suffered about 650 000 casualties to gain just 545 square kilometres of territory

-largest artillery shell

-led by British commander General Douglas Haig

-deadliest battle of WWI

-purpose: attempt to break lines and relieve the city of Verdun

-war’s most intense artillery barrage: 1 million shells, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

-2cm of land for every allied man killed

Vimy Ridge:

-April 9, 1917

-Canada’s Crowning moment

-birth of nation

-Canada fought alone as a nation for the first time

-200,000 French and British failed, then Canada attempts and succeeds

-bomb then soldiers crept up and after 2H, Canada owned Vimy Ridge

-all four Canadian divisions fight together as one unit Canada (Canadian Corps)

-first time Canadian soldiers led by Arthur Currie who was British

-Vimy Ridge- a ridge on high land in north west France

-Germany spent 2.5 years reinforcing their position of the ridge

-concrete + steel + machine gun nests = fortified trenches

-after success at Vimy Ridge, Canadians start to think of themselves as Canadian first: distinct who are proud of their nation

-Canada took charge to plan stuff out. Arthur Curie made the creeping barrage

-Lord Byng led Arthur Currie to plan attack

-Creeping Barrage: precision timed artillery attack designed fall in front of advancing soldiers

-soldiers follow closely behind an artillery bombardment. when the shelling stops the soldiers surprise the enemy

-flash spotting: a machine used to identify and target German machine guns

-sound ranging: used echoes of German artillery guns to locate and destroy them before attack

Passchendaele:

-November 6, 1917

-third battle of Ypres

-rain turned no man’s land into a muddy swamp pocked with deep water-filled craters

-Haig ordered allied troops to try and break through the German lines (near Ypres)

Canada’s Hundred Days:

-August 8, 1918 to November 11, 1918

-lasted one hundred days

-led by Currie

-august: Currie + Canadian Corps spearhead (lead) an allied attack of the French city of Amines. push Germans back 13 km in a war characterized by little movement

-Canada’s Hundred Days was a series of attacks made along the Western Front by the Canadian Corps