Sir John A. MacDonald: First prime minister of Canada.
Colony: A territory that is under the political control of another country or state.
Nationalism: A set of beliefs that promote the collective interests and cultural identity of a nation.
Imperialism: The policy of extending the power of one country over the other countries by acquiring territory or establishing economic and political control.
Militarism: A belief in the necessity of building and maintaining a strong military force. Alliances: Would ensure a balance of power: where no single country would become more
powerful than the rest.
Arms/Naval Race: European countries began competing to create the largest and most powerful military forces.
Dreadnought: Battleship used by Britain navy.
U-Boat: Submarine used by the German navy.
The Triple Entente: Britain, France and Russia.
The Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
“The Fronts”: With these two alliances in place, the “stage was set” for war. It would be a war guaranteed on two fronts: Western Front and Eastern Front.
Franz Ferdinand: Was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina on June 28th, 1914, him and his wife were shot and killed visiting Sarajevo, both were killed by Gavrilo Princip.
Gavrilo Princip: Member of Serbian/nationalist/terrorist called the Black Hand.
Black Hand: Wanted Bosnia to join Serbia. Was a terrorist group.
Ultimatum: July 28th, 1914 Austria-Hungary sends Serbia a harsh ultimatum stating that Serbia must agree to:
-allow A-H to send officials to Serbia to investigate the murder.
-ban all anti-Austrian demonstrations and protests
-allow A-H soldiers to enter Serbia to investigate Franz Ferdinand case
Schlieffen Plan: speed + large army + element of surprise = victory The plane did not go as planned.
Sam Hughes: Sir Samuel Hughes (January 8, 1853 – August 23, 1921) was the Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence during World War I. Approved the Ross Rifle.
Ross Rifle vs. Lee-Enfields: Ross rifle was used by snipers but was disliked by soldiers. Problem: jammed, heavy hard to assembly, long barrel made close combat difficult. Rusult: Canadian used British Lee-Enfields.
“Dog Fight”: Battle between two or more aircrafts.
“Flying Coffins”: Nickname for fight planes. A veteran pilot had an average life span of three
weeks. A rookie pilot had an average life span of 11 days.
Billy Bishop: A Canadian fighter pilot who proved to be the best in the entire British Empire. He recorded ’72 kills’ and received the Victory Cross- highest award for bravery.
Red Barron: Nickname for the German flying ace Manfred von Richthofen. He was a German national hero and the best fighter pilot of WWI. Recorded over 80 combat victories. He was shot down by a Canadian fighter pilot named Roy Brown in 1918.
Roy Brown: Shot Red Baron in 1918 WWI.
No-Man’s Land: A strip of land between the trenches of opposing armies along the Western Front during WW1, most soldiers ended up dying if they got picked to go into no mans land.
Shell Shock: A psychological trauma as a result of constant exposure to artillery barrages and the threat of death.
Trench Foot: Feet rot as a result of being constantly wet.
Trench Mouth: Teeth and gums begin to rot as a result of poor dental hygiene.
Chlorine/Mustard Gas: First used in the Second Battle of Ypres by Germans. The gas which was poisonous caused eyes and lungs to burn, victims to choke, gag and suffocate to death so both sides would begin to equipped soldiers with gas masks. This was an unsuccessful weapon because is wind changed the gas attack would backfire and harm troop who started the attack.
“Shock Troops”: Troops who are specially trained for sudden attacks against an enemy, a group of people who are very active in fighting for a cause.
Creeping Barrage: Strategy to bombard enemy defences with all available heavy artillery. It was believed that preliminary bombardment would enable soldiers to capture enemy trenches.
Arthur Currie: General Sir Arthur William Currie was a senior officer of the Canadian Army who fought during WWI. Led Canada’s Hundred Days and made the creeping barrage for the battle of Vimy Ridge.
Lord Byng: British commander of Vimy Ridge.
Flash Spotting: A procedure employing specialist observers who look into enemy’s rear areas.
Sound Ranging: Time intervals of gun fire.
Lusitania: German U-boat sank British passenger liner killing 1,192. 128 American passengers. Prompted the US to war
Total War: A war in which every available weapon is used and the nation’s full financial resources are devoted.
Victory Bonds: Certificate/bonds bought by average Canadian citizens to help fund the war effort.
Income Tax: Canadian government introduced a a business tax 1916, income tax introduced in 1917 (Canadian government takes a percentage of the earning you make in year).
Conscription: forced to enlist for military service.
Robert Borden: Canada’s Prime minister throughout World War I.
Wilfrid Laurier: Opponent of Borden, against conscription and part of liberal.
Military Service Act: July 1917, makes conscription for fighting overseas the law.
Military Voters Act: First time woman can vote if they are in the military (vote for federal national elections).
Wartime Election Act: Mothers, daughters, wives and sisters of men fighting overseas are given the right to vote.
War Measures Act: 1914, government had the power to take away the freedoms of citizens and force them into internment.
Propaganda: The systematic effort to shape people’s beliefs to achieve specific goals. Enemy Alliances: People who had come from “enemy counties”that Canada was fighting. Tsar Nicholas II: Autocratic ruler of Russia.
Bloody Sunday: January 22, 1905, in St. Petersburg, unarmed civilians marching down to the winter palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II are fired upon and killed by the imperial guard. Starting point of the break in relation between the Romanovs & Russian people. Russians believe Tsar doesn’t care about their well being.
Peasants: Rising unemployment, famine and food shortages, labour unrest and massive casualties in the war.
February Revolution: 1917, In the capital of Petrograd (now St. Petersburg). Massive demonstrations and violent clashes between protests and the imperial guard. Why? Rising unemployment, inflation, famine and starvation.
Bolsheviks: Were a political party who took control of Russia after the fall of the Romanov Dynasty. From 1917-1991
Soviet Union: Russia is called the Soviet Union (USSR). Aka: The communist party of the Soviet Union Party.
Treaty of Brest-Livstok: Officially ends war between Russia and Germany
Armistice: (truce) is reached between Germany and the allied powers. The truce (or seize-fire) officially marked the end go the actual fighting but NOT the war. “At the 11th hour, 11th day of the month”
Paris Peace Conference: Meeting inParis in 1919 to negotiate terms and conditions that would be imposed on Germany, Austria-Hungary and officially end the war.
“Big Four”: Britain, France, U.S, Italy.
Treaty of Versailles: Officially end WWI, Canada signs it independently.