The end of the Second World War D-Day
- June 6 August 21, 1944
- The largest invasion force in human history. (Operation Overlord)
- By June 30th, over 980k men, 148k vehicles, and 570k tons of supplies had landed onthe Normandy shores.
- Winston Churchill (Great Britain) and Franklin Roosevelt (USA)
- decided to invade through Normandy because the German army expected them atPas de Calais.
- For the first month following the DDay landings, a stalemate developed and the Alliesreinforced itself.
- Canadians landed on Juno beach on June 6, 1944
- In July Canadian troops helped capture Caen and then turned towards Falaise wherethey aimed at joining an American advance from the south to encircle the German
forces in Normandy.
- Casualties from the three countries during the landing numbered 10,300.
- Canadians would have 18,444 casualties including 5,021 dead.
- Of the nearly 150k Allied troops who landed or parachuted into the invasion area, 14kwere Canadians.
- Royal Canadian Navy contributed 110 ships and 10k sailors in support of the landingswhile the R.C.A.F. had helped prepare the invasion by bombing targets inland.
April 30, 1945
With Soviet troops coming to take the German capital, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker in Berlin,
May 8, 1945
- VE Day (Victory in Europe Day)
- The German troops have surrendered.Aug 15, 1945
- VG or VP Day (Victory over Japan or Victory in the Pacific)
- Japan surrendersDefeat of the Axis
- DDay truly the beginning of the end (1944)
- Allied forces push into Europe on all fronts
- U.S. turns the tide against Japan (begins with Battle of Midway in 1942)
Liberation of Holland
- Canadian forces free Holland in 1944
- Beginning of incredible bond between Canada and The Netherlands.Defeat of the Axis
- 1943: Mussolini overthrown, Italy joins Allies
- September 1944: Allies enter Germany
- Mid 1945: Mussolini executed, Hitler commits suicide
- May 8, 29145: Victory in Europe (VE Day)Japan
- August 1945: U.S. drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
- Japan surrenders one month laterAftermath of War
- Most of Europe in ruins; reconstruction begins
- Germany divided in two:
- East governed by U.S. and Britain
- West governed by Soviet Union
- Forced to pay reparations
- Allies help to rebuild
- Japan “deindustrialized” to remove threatNuremberg Trials
- 21 Nazi officials put on trial for war crimes
- Top surviving participants in the Holocaust
- Sentenced to prison time (various lengths)
- Set standard for international war crimes trialsResults of the War for Canada
- Canadians who served: 1,086,343
- Canadians who died: 42, 042 (less than FWW)
- Stronger economy (war manufacturing)
- EnglishFrench tension (conscription)
- Strengthened independence from Britain (Dieppe, Junno)Women’s COntribution
- WOmen crucial to wartime industry
- Also served in the military, due to shortages
- Nurses, secretaries, drivers, mechanics, and spies
- Made less money, discharged after war
New World Order?
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights drafted in 1949 to defend human rights
- Canada had significant role in creating it
- Britain, France, etc., grant independence to former colonies
- Some peaceful, some not
- However, several countries annexed by Soviet UnionThe Atomic Threat
- Use of nuclear weapons of HUGE event
- Weapon with potential to destroy the world
- U.S. is only country with weapon at first
- Helps U.S. take larger role in global affairs
- Sept 1940: Japan signs Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy Axis formally created
- Dec 1941: Japan bombs Pearl HarborIn Canada
- At the start of the war:
- Approx. 23k Canadians of Japanese origin living in Canada
- 75% were official Canadian citizens
- Recall: War Measures Act (1914)
Gave government “sweeping power” to maintain Canada’s security in wartime
Used to imprison Canadians of German, SLavic, and Japanese origin possible “enemy aliens”
- Japanese Canadians moved to internment camps in 1942
- Placed in cramped huts more than one family per hut
- No electricity / running water for the first year
- Poor sanitation, limited foodIn Addition
- Property confiscated by government and sold
- Money used to pay for camps
- Eventually, some Japanese men sent to road work campsEnd of the War
- 1945: 3964 Japanese and Japanese Canadians deported
- Illegal for Japanese Canadians to return to Vancouver until 1949
- In 1988, PM Brian Mulroney apologized for the internment and offered each survivor$21k
Internment of Japanese Canadians
The Thread of Japan
- Holocaust not just against Jews
- Other victims
- Roma (gypsies)
- Poles and other Slavic peoples
- Disabled individuals
- Intellectuals and educators
- Political enemies
- Certain religious groupsThe Nuremberg Laws
- 1935: German Jews lose civil rights
- Defined as a separate race, not a religion
- Jewish population politically defenselessFurther Regulations
- Jews banned from certain professions
- Ordered to register wealth/ property
- Forced to adopt a universal first name (Israel for men, Sara for women)
- Must wear armband for identificationKristallnacht (1938)
- Translation: “Night of Crystal” or “Night of Broken Glass”
- Wave of pogroms in Germany, Austria, and elsewhere
- Riots led against Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues
- Orchestrated by Nazi officialsGhettos
- Beginning in 1939, Jewish communities converted into “ghettos”
- Guarded areas where Jews and others were forced to live
- 356 ghettos established
- Terrible living conditions
- Poor sanitation
- Little food (starvation)
- Mock ghettos created to fool Red CrossCamps
1933: First concentration camp opened at Dachau for political prisoners Notes taken from slides by Alexander Mertens
- 1942: Jews, etc., moved from ghettos to camps
- Some prisoners, some forced laborThe Final Solution
Wannsee Conference (1942)
German officials gather to decide ultimate fate of Jews
Announced the Final Solution
Deliberate, systematic extermination of all nonAryans in Germanheld territory
Camp dwellers shipped to 7 death camps Most deadly was Auschwitz
- Murdered via gas chambers and firing squads
- Victims buried in mass graves or burnedFinal Statistics
- Over 6 million Jews killed
- Approx. 5 million other victims
- Total Deaths: Approx. 11 millionLiberation of the Camps
- After D Day, allies pushed further into Europe
- Retook land conquered by Germans
- Found and liberated concentration campsCover-Up
- Nazis tried to destroy evidence of Final Solution
- Burned reports, tore down structures
- Couldn’t hide everything
- Gas chambers found in several campsLiberation
- Soviet soldiers liberated Auschwitz (Jan 1945)
- Other camps liberated by British, Americans
- Found gas chambers, personal belongings of victims
- Also found survivorsWar Crimes Trials
- Nazi officials were put on trial after the war
- These trials are still going onJohn Demjanjuk
- Ukrainian immigrant to U.S. after the war
- Convicted of war crimes by 1986 by Israeli court
Notes taken from slides by Alexander Mertens
- Identified as a camp guard known as “Ivan the Terrible”
- Sentenced to death
- Sentence overturned court could not confirm that he was “Ivan the Terrible”
- Tried again in 2001 with the same result
- Stripped of U.S. Citizenship twice and ordered to be deported in 2005
- New trial in Germany in 2009
- Accused of 29k counts of murder by German Supreme Court
- Convicted in 2011 and sentenced to 5 years in prison
- Passed away before serving his sentence
Notes taken from slides by Alexander Mertens
Conscription Crisis: Episode 2 Conscription Vote: 1942
- 64% said yes
- 36% said no
- 85% of Quebec French Canadians voted noConscription Crisis
- PM King promised no conscription in 1939
- Pressured by Britain to provide more soldiers, led to vote
- Conscription passed in 1942
- FrenchCanadians were furious
- Union Nationale elected in Quebec
- New party: Bloc populaire canadian (now the bloc party quebecois)Canada’s Home Front Economy
- Factories produced war material around the clock
- New industries created new technology (tanks, airplanes, etc.)
- Heavy government involvement
- Job crisis over; more people need to contributeWomen’s Contribution
- Women heavily recruited for labor
- Married women with children encouraged to work
- Over 1 million employed by 1944Far from Perfect
- Canadian and US industry hugely integrated by 1940
- Britain demanded more materials
- Result: Canada forced to seek aid from US
Increased debt to US
Problem solved when US entered the war
The Blitzkrieg in Action Germany Advances
- Poland conquered in 1939
- By 1940, Denmark, Norway, and Netherlands were conqueredFrance
- France was nervous (understandable)
- To repel a German invasion, the military built the Maginot Line
- Basically a long system of trenches between France and GermanyFailure of the Maginot
- Germany went around the Line by going through Belgium
- Blitzkrieg strategy successful again
- By summer 1940, France surrenderedMajor Canadian Battles of the Second W.W.
Miracle of Dunkirk
May 26 to June 4 1940
Defense and evacuation of British and allied forces.
Privately owned boats as well as British destroyers helped navigate the soldiers back in a thick fog that provided cover.
What was Canada’s Involvement?
Canada supplied four Royal Canadian Navy destroyers.
The Battle of Britain
July 10 to October 31 1940
The battle for air supremacy with the Germans and the UK.
British anticipated the airstrikes and defended Britain.
What was Canada’s involvement?
Canadians flew Spitfires and Hurricanes.
The Battle of Dieppe
August 19 1942
Allied forces launched a large raid on the Frenches small coast of Dieppe.
The disaster begain immediately as German guns, with a clear line of fire onto the beaches, slaughtered the soldiers who made it ashore.
What was Canada’s involvement?
Canada performed the Operation Jubilee.
The Invasion of Hong Kong
December 8 to December 25 1941
The Empire of Japan attacked Hong Kong illegally because they had not declared war.
What was Canada’s involvement?
1975 Canadian troops were sent to defend the Crown Colony of Hong Kong.
The Changing Face of War The First World War
- Largely a static war (no one was moving)
- Focused on defense; use of trenchesThe Second World War
- Largely a mobile war
- Focused on offense; armies in motion
- Trenches abandoned (except in France)Airplanes
The First World War
- Used infrequently
- Primarily reconnaissance
- Not used for combatThe Second World War
- Used to surprise and destroy enemy forces
- Targeted supply chains, defenses
- Terrorized civilians and bombed citiesT anks
The First World War
- Very slow and unreliable
- Moved with soldiers
- Often broke down, disabled by fortificationsThe Second World War
- Traveled separate form soldiers
- Broke through defenses
- Infantry followed to “mop up”War Manufacturing
The need to manufacture these new weapons and produce munitions and other supplies for the war effort helped pull the world out of the Great Depression
Translates to “lightning war”
- Offense using an entire army infantry, tanks, aircraft, artillery, navy, etc
- Focus on using overwhelming force to break the enemy quickly
- Use constant motion to keep the enemy offbalance
Germany’s Expansion into Europe The road to war
- Hitler was elected partly on his promise to restore Germany’s glory
- Began to restore and expand Germany’s militaryThe World’s Response
- After the First World War, countries organized the League of Nations
- It’s purpose was to settle global disputes peacefully and avoid another World War
- Canada fought for its own seat, independent of Great Britain
- But, it has a downfall… Who was in???
- When Germany began to rearm, the League of nations chose to adopt a policy ofappeasement (avoiding war by giving an aggressor what they want)
Germany Expands Further
- With its new military, Germany began to retake lost territory The Rhineland (1936) Austria (1938)
Czechoslovakia (Early 1939)
- Italy, Russia and Japan started conquering neighbours, as well
- In response, the League again did nothingThe League of Nations
- Established by the Paris Peace Conference along with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919
- The Nazis, Soviet Union, and United States of America that didn’t get into the Leagueof Nations.
Problems with the League
- Without three of the world’s most powerful countries, the League was largely useless
- Its largest members, Britain and France, were too weakened by the First World War touse their military might
- If a country made an aggressive move, the League could only pass economicsanctions and hope for a peaceful resolution
The Second World War Abroad
For Canada, the Second World War served to further our independence as a country and our status in global affairs.
The Second World War at Home
LIke the Great War, the Second World war altered Canadian identity and culture significantly
Japanese people in Canada were imprisoned because of their japanese status and the relations of Japan
THe holocaust is not a unique or isolated event. That level of horror is possible in any democracy, if people look the other way.
The Holocaust Globally
Propaganda decreased the trading with Germany.
World War One
The Rise of Adolf Hitler
- He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914
- HIs wartime experience reinforced his German patriotism and he was shocked byGermany’s defeat in November 1918
- Like other German nationalists, he believed the DelcstoBlegende(stabinthebackmyth), which claimed that the German army, “undefeated in the field”, had been “stabbed in the back” on the home front by civilian leaders and Marxists, alter dubbed the “November criminals”.
Early Political Life
- Hitler joined the German WOrkers Party (DAP) in 1919.
- The party name was shortly changed to Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei(National Socialist German Workers Party NSDAP).
- Hitler began giving energetic speeches in beer halls that drew large crowds.
- His energetic speeches used cultural groups as scapegoats for all of Germany’sproblems.
Beer Hall Putsch
- In 1932 HItler attempted coup known as the “Beer Hall Putsch” (throw over the government)
- On April 1, Hitler was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment where he wrote Mien Kempf (My Struggle)
- The crash of 1929 and the great depression led to new opportunities and audiences for HitlerGaining Power
- ALthough he lost to Hindenburg (with a minority government), the 1932 election established Hitler as a strong force in German politics.
- Industrialists and businessmen urged Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as leader of a government “independent from parliamentary party”, which could turn into a movement that would “enrapture millions of people”
- March 1933, the new Reichstag brought the Enabling Act to the government which allowed Hitler’s cabinet full legislative powers for four years and (with certain exceptions) allowed deviations from the constitution.
- The Enabling Act transformed Hitler’s government into a de facto legal dictatorship.Now that he’s in
Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his allies began to suppress the remaining opposition.
The beginning of the Nazi Regime
- In a meeting with German military leaders on February 3 1933, Hitler spoke of “conquest for Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation” as his ultimate foreign policy objectives
- At the first meeting of his cabinet in 1933, Hitler prioritized military spending over unemployment relief.