CHC2D Grade 10 Academic History – Exam Key Terms

Thanks, Jennifer!

CHC2D: Key Terms for Review

Unit 1: 1900-1928

John A. MacDonald:

-1854: created the Conservative Party
-was initially against Confederation but later promoted it, drafted 2⁄3of the BNA Act (our first Constitution) -first PM of Canada until 1891
-achievements: Confederation; expansion of Canada to include Manitoba, BC, and P.E.I. (ferry); building of the railway (CPR), National Policy (encouraging more railways, more immigrants, stopping the promotion of free trade with US, tariffs)

Sir Wilfrid Laurier:

-1887: leader of Liberal Party
-1896: 7th PM of Canada for 15 years (1896-1911)
-charismatic, avoided confrontation, always compromised
-promoted industry, railways, expansion, immigrants to the west (National Policy) -compromised with the English and French (ex. Boer War, Naval Crisis, Manitoba Schools Act) -manufacturing expanded, wheat boom, golden age for some, industrial growth

Clifford Sifton:

-minister of the interior (1896-1905)
-convinced immigrants to come to Canada, sending pamphlets, posters, speakers (3 million came, 1 million stayed)
-first time non-French and non-English immigrants came, established immigrants did not like them, thought they were stealing their jobs

Charlottetown Conference, Quebec Conference, 72 Resolutions, London Conference

Charlottetown (September 1864): politicians from upper/lower Canada, NB, NS, and PEI meet to talk about union as a bigger nation; agreed to meet again to discuss Confederation
Quebec (October 1864): leaders work out how the country would be run; came up with Quebec/72 Resolutions; Newfoundland and PEI took part but chose not to join at the time

72 Resolutions: each colony became a province, strong central gov’t, railroad, etc
London (December 1866-January 1867): last conference that took place in England; leaders from NB, NS, and upper/lower Canada took the 72 Resolutions to come up with final agreement; document created was the British North America Act (BNA), once British Parliament approved, Confederation would go ahead


-Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec: July 1, 1867 -Manitoba and Northwest Territories: 1870 (Manitoba Act, Louis Riel) -BC: 1871 (railway promised)

-PEI: 1873 (ferry was promised) -Yukon: 1898
-Saskatchewan, Alberta: 1905 -Newfoundland: 1949 -Nunavut: 1999

Alaska Boundary Dispute

-1900: Canada felt threatened by the U.S.
-Britain wanted to maintain good relations with the U.S. since they needed powerful allies against the growing German military
-Alaska purchased from Russia in 1867, included a panhandle of land: conflict of where borders should be drawn, dispute occurs
-Britain’s unwillingness to anger the Americans led them to give in to U.S. demands, Canada felt betrayed

Manitoba Schools Act:

-Manitoba premier Greenway decided to stop funding for Catholic French schools in 1890 in Manitoba -Laurier compromises that French teachers would be provided if a certain number of students were interested

Henri Bourassa:

-French Canadian political leader and publisher
-opposed Laurier, especially during the Boer War, led opposition to mandatory conscription in WWI, left federal parliament in 1907, thought that involvement in the Boer War would lead to more Canadian participation in imperial wars
-ideological father of French-Canadian nationalism, became independent

Nellie McClung:

-womens rights activist
-laws in the provinces prevented women from voting, disenfranchisement made women feel like second class citizens, women’s suffrage groups existed (used petitions, publicity, private contracts, lobbying to persuade the gov’t to let women vote)
-lobbied for temperance (prohibition), education, human rights, public health, jobs, right to vote
-Nellie McClung rented out a theater, put on a play where men were begging to vote rather than women and this persuaded people to support women’s suffrage movements
-first women given the vote was during the Wartime Elections Act: 1917 in Ontario, 1918 in NS, 1922 in PEI, 1916 in Manitoba, 1944 in QC
-McClung was in the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, associated with suffrage and temperance movement

Emily Murphy:
­P erson’s case, women’s rights activist, became the first woman in Canada to vote

-In 1918, she became the first female magistrate in Canada, and in the British Empire
-One of the member in the “Famous Five”: Henrietta Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby were the other members of the Famous Five
-In 1927, the “Person’s case” was launched by the “Famous Five” saying that women could be “qualified persons” eligible to sit in the Senate
-They went to the Federal court (no), then the supreme court(no), then the British Privy council(yes)

Boer War:

-1899 war in South America with Britain, debated whether Canada should send money and/or troops to help the British, alienated French Canadians, English wanted to prove their loyalty to the crown by enlisting, Laurier compromises to send Canadian volunteers but Britain would pay for them


-practice of exchanging things with each other for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country to another (US, Canada)

Causes of WWI:

MILITARISM: increased military and naval rivalry lead to belief that war was coming, policy of building weapons, threats of military aggression, society encourages military aggression, Germany believed the only way to be a world power was through war
ALLIANCES: treaty between two gov’ts or countries to protect each other in time of war, when war broke out or a country is offended many other allied countries were drawn into the war

IMPERIALISM: extension from country in military/economic/political means, extend the country’s influence, lead to expansion and invasion of other countries
NATIONALISM: strong sense of pride for one’s country, fanaticism, lead hatred towards other countries, when people felt that their country was offended they longed for revenge (war)

CRISIS: the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary (June 1914) led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, Germany declaring war on Russia (defender of Serbia), vice-versa to the start of WWI

Von Schlieffen:

-German Field Marshal responsible for devising the Schlieffen Plan (what the German strategy at the beginning of the war was unsuccessfully based on)
-Schlieffen Plan: quickly defeat the French in the West by going through neutral Belgium (assuming they would let them go through), then turn their troops and efforts against Russia to avoid war on two fronts -this plan failed since Belgium didn’t let them through and the Germans attacked them, leading to Britain declaring war (treaty for Britain to protect Belgium’s neutrality) on Germany and so forth

Key Battles of WWI:

1ST BATTLE OF YPRES (Oct-Nov 1914): Germans raced toward English Channel, stopped in Belgian town of Ypres, stalemate, front lines of the war drawn, Ypres still held by Triple Entente

2ND BATTLE OF YPRES (April 22-27, 1915): Germans broke the stalemate by using chlorine gas (violating the Hague Convention), French and Algerian troops ran as the gas came, Canadians that were outnumbered 5 to 1 filled in the gaps and used urinated cloths to avoid the gas, Canadians managed to stop German breakthrough and have the reputation of ‘hard hitting shock troops’

BATTLE OF VERDUN (1916): Germans looking for breakthrough in Western front, commit to massive invasion of Verdun (strategically important area of northeastern France

BATTLE OF THE SOMME (July-November 1916): General Douglas Haig wants to attack the Somme to draw Germans away from Verdun and break the German line, bombarded German trenches for two weeks hoping they would lose many soldiers, bombardment stopped July 1 and the British went over the top to discover that the Germans had survived by hiding in their bunkers, Haig continued the onslaught leading to 6km gained at the cost of 24 000 Canadian casualties and approx. 1 million deaths total for 6 kilometres of land

VIMY RIDGE (April 1917): was the turning point for Canada, moment of national bond, extensive preparations (aerial shots of German lines, tunnels underground), new creeping barrage ( before an infantry advance during the First World War, it was a common strategy to bombard enemy defences with all available heavy artillery with infantry following behind)s trategy was very effective, 4 Canadian divisions stormed the ridge and more than 15 000 infantry overran the Germans by moving under heavy fire of artillery, Canadians capture key objectives lead by Currie and Bingh, largest advance on western front since 1914, around 3000 Allied casualties

-following Vimy, Canadians fought effectively in Fresnoy, Lens, Arleux and used tanks effectively at Cambrai

THIRD BATTLE OF YPRES/BATTLE OF PASSCHENDAELE (July-November 1917): Haig ordered Canadians to rescue the British assault on Passchendaele, said an offensive in Flanders could win the war for the British, battlefield was all mud, Currie protested against the attacks saying it was useless and would cost at least 16 000 lives, Haig insisted on the attack for ‘reasons’ and allows Currie time to prepare, the town was captured but had to wait for reinforcements, Germans regained their lost ground in November, worst battle for Canadians, cost around 16 000 casualties

HILL 70 (August 1917): Canadians asked to capture Hill 70 after Vimy, the heavily fortified 7km ridge held a commanding view over the Allied lines, Canadians assaulted over open graveyard since previous French attack failed and many people died, they captured Hill 70 on the 15th with around 6000 Canadian casualties

Arthur Currie:
-He was a senior officer in the Canadian army who fought in WW1

-The first Canadian commander in the Canadian Corps in the Canadian Expeditionary Force -First Canadian to get the full rank of general
-Had the ability to rapidly adapt brigade tactics for the need of trench warfare, using “set piece” operations and “bite-and-hold” tactics

-Considered to be the most capable commander on the western front and the finest commander Canadian Military History
-Was responsible for Vimy Ridge
-Battle of Passchendaele: didn’t want to send troops, knew of the dangers, Haig insisted anyways -created the creeping barrage military tactic, effectively used in Battle of Vimy Ridge

Trench Warfare

-invention of machine gun led soldiers to dig down into the ground for protection; narrow ditches, zig zag, communication trenches, listening posts, disease ridden, wet, rats, support trenches, front line trenches, support line, dugout, reserve trenches
-trenches connected to create long line of defence stretching from Belgium to Switzerland

-area between opposing trenches was ‘no man’s land’
-trenches often filled up with water, drowning soldiers
-most trenches were 2m wide and deep: muddy, couple feet of water, full of bodies lice and rats, sickness
-many soldiers experiences shell shock from continuous fighting
-trenchfoot was gangrene, prolonged exposure to dirty water made you lose circulation, foot ‘went rotten’
-during the day, sharpshooters would snipe soldiers not good at hiding
-night: patrols and repair of parapets (elevated position to see enemy) and barbed wire carried out, it was the best time for surprise attacks or ‘raiding parties’
-dawn: best time for ‘going over the top’ which was to charge across no man’s land usually under a rain of bullet fire
-very little gains made with trenches, caused long stalemates


-American ship departed on the way to Liverpool, carrying explosives, ammunitions, war materials and people
-May 1915: German U-Boat crashed, exploding the Lusitania
-Germans said it was a justified war zone because it carried war materials, but Americans thought it was deliberate and declared war on Germany

Robert Borden:

-Canadian lawyer and politician, PM during WWI (1911-1920)
-achievements: War Measures Act in 1914, provided half a million Canadian soldiers for war effort, Military Service Act (conscription), recruited members of the Liberals to create a unionist gov’t, played a role in transforming British Empire into a partnership of equal states (Commonwealth of Nations)

Conscription WWI:

-political and military crisis in 1917 after devastation at the Somme -almost all French opposed it, led by Henri Bourassa
-English felt stronger ties, supported the war effort
-Military Services Act passed in May 1917 , never used

WWI Home Front:

-Canada didn’t choose to go to war but connections to Britain forced them to join Aug 4, 1914
-33 000 volunteers trained in Valcartier, QC
-corrupt Sam Hughes was the Minister of Militia, organized the corrupt Shell Committee, later replaced by Joseph Flavelle’s Imperial Munitions Board (IMB)
-natives were discouraged to enlist, gov’t let natives enlist after 1915 (slowing of enlistments), 1 in every 3 natives enlisted
-black Canadians were rejected but worked on 2# Construction Battalion
-Japanese were initially rejected but later allowed to enlist (196 served)
-Ukrainians were ‘enemy aliens’ and due to the War Measures Act, they had to carry ID and work in internment work camps in QC, BC, AL
-Canada provided Britain with huge amounts of beef and wheat (16 million hectares of wheat, 87 million pounds of beef a year)
-37% of Canadian men and women who served were either killed or wounded
-women took over male jobs and became nurses, drivers, worked at victory bond drives, volunteered overseas with the Rec Cross

Douglas Haig:

-commanded the 1st Army Corps, served at 1st Battle of Ypres
-inflexible, unimaginative in trench warfare, had traditional and conventional tactics -known for commanding at the Somme

New technologies of 20s:

-radio, cars, television, cars, telephone, insulin (Banting and Best), assembly line, silent movies -closer ties to U.S. from radio broadcasts, television, etc
-new path for businesses to reach consumers (radio and tv advertising)
-decade of new inventions, contributed to the development of U.S.

-radio, silent screens, cars, roads


-banning alcohol, reduced alcohol consumption around 80%, due to women’s temperance movements -QC never enforced prohibition, in place in Canada from 1918 to 1920
-gov’t could raise money by controlling and taxing the sale of liquor

-most provinces gave up prohibition by the early/mid 1920s, was unpopular with voters, created wave of crime that created tensions between Canada and U.S., laws were hard to enforce when everyone was breaking the law anyways since they like drinking or could make money selling alcohol illegally


-new music that defined the Roaring 20s
-created by African American musicians in the South of US, spread quickly through radio to urban cities and along the US border, by the 20s, jazz radio broadcasters were very popular

W i n n i p e g G e n e r a l S t r i k e ( M a y 1 5 – J u n e 2 5 , 1 9 1 9 ) :

-Winnipeg Trades and Labour Council (WTLC) workers gathered in Winnipeg to protest working conditions and better pay (dangerous, poor, long hours, no regulations), called for a strike on May 15, 1919
-30 000 unionized and nonunionized workers walked off their jobs
-rich industrialists formed the Committee of 1000, refused to meet with WTLC

-Borden sends federal representatives to Winnipeg, led by Meighen, supporting the Committee of 1000, fearing a conflict would grip the nation, called the strike leaders ‘communists, Bolsheviks’ (WTLC vs Committee of 1000)
-June 17: 10 strikers and 2 leaders of OBU (One Big Union) were arrested, including J.S. Woodsworth, future leader of the CCF

-June 21 (Bloody Saturday): people gathered to protest arrests, violence broke out, 1 person was killed, 30 were injured

Up and downs of prosperity in the 20s:

-people were making money since it was post-war, peacetime era, many people spent a lot of money on luxury items, new technologies, buying on margin (spend, spend, spend), people investing and borrowing, economy steadily rose
-crash of stock market in 1929 led to people losing their jobs, spending less, start of the Depression -cities growing, more equality, lack of jobs, no unions, farmers not happy since high taxes and falling wheat sales

Commonwealth and the Empire:

-provinces decided to join together because the government was unstable (kept on changing leaders), economic problems (no one to buy their products, poor, railway costs a lot, farms were filling up so people moved to U.S.), and afraid of the U.S. (manifest destiny: wanted control of all North America, declared war on Britain and invaded Canada-War of 1812)

Western Expansion (immigration to the west):

-1867 to 1914, Canadian West opened for mass settlement, many immigrants settles for a new life -immigration boom created key industries: agriculture, mining, oil

-100 000 European immigrants (Irish, French, German, Scottish, Scandinavian, etc) left their homes in 1926 to settle in the West, promised land, hoping for prosperity and freedom
-the promise turned out to be hollow and they returned home in poverty, unemployment
-given 160 acres of land for only $10, with the agreement that they would build a house and cultivate the prairie

-gov’t used publicity to encourage settlement in the West, showing glittering realities (vast sunlit plains, romantic portrait of Canada, adventure), lots of exaggeration
-Sifton wanted to attract British, American, or European immigrants that were farmers and used to the harsh realities to the ‘Last Best West’

-ex. A ‘cottage’ was a ‘hen house no windows half a door no stove or bed nothing but hen feed -promotional texts also underplayed the harsh climate of the prairies, assuring the climate was ‘healthful’ (brilliant sunshine produces a sense of invigoration), neglected to mention that the cold were sometimes so severe they froze the cattle

-the jobs that the gov’t promised to the immigrants also did not always exist
-of the 1 million settlers that went to the West, only 1⁄2 stayed, the other half either went to live in cities or back home
-people came to Canada and saw only flat land, prairies, no water, and very primitive conditions
-the dream of prosperity only came true for some

Buying on margin:

Buying on margin is the purchase of an asset by paying the m argin and borrowing the balance from a bank or broker. Buying on margin refers to the initial or d own payment made to the b roker for the asset being purchased
-borrowing money from a broker to purchase a stock

-investors rushed to buy shares which drove up the prices, they put faith into the fact that prices would continue rising even though they borrowed money to buy their shares, they hoped that eventually the prices would raise enough that they would sell their shares, pay back lenders, and make a profit -companies and consumers borrowed a lot to pay for expensive products, reduction in sales or income made it hard for them to pay their borrowed money back

The Business Cycle (lasts 3.5-7 years)

Prosperity: e conomic growth at peak/highest point, products are sold, inventories are running out, not enough workers, workers want higher salaries
Inflation: w ith higher prices charged for products, inflation occurs (interest rates rise with prices, consumers don’t want to borrow money or buy expensive items), people spend less money, unsold inventories sit there, profit not made

Recession: c ompanies have too many products and lower profits because people are saving money, companies stop hiring and expanding, firing people, less people buy things, less sales, reduction in production, interest rates and bankruptcies increase
Depression: when the recession stage lasts a long time

Trough: no sales and businesses can’t spend or raise prices, workers can’t demand higher pay, prices stabilize (but they can decrease, deflation), interest rates decrease and people who have saved their money start spending again because prices aren’t high anymore and borrowing isn’t as risky Recovery: when people are spending and have jobs, companies gradually increase their productions, stage lasts until prosperity is reached again, the cycle starts again


-Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (now is NDP)
-formed in 1932 in Calgary by J.S. Woodsworth, socialist
-1933 Regina Manifesto called for replacement of capitalist systems and proposed some ideas (nationalization), supported establishment of welfare state (universal pensions, health and welfare insurance, children’s allowance, unemployment insurance, workers compensation) and other promises of the ‘New Deal’

Unit 2: Depression and War

Mackenzie King:

-served as tenth Prime Minister of Canada in 1921-1926, 1926-1930, 1935-1948, a Liberal with 22 years in office (longest serving PM in Canadian history)
-best known for his leadership throughout WWII
-involved in King-Byng affair: King wanted to call an election since there was a Liberal scandal, the Governor General Byng refused to do so (was the first time a Governor General didn’t follow a PM’s orders), as a result of the King-Byng affair, Arthur Meighen becomes PM for a short time in 1926

-King was influenced by Laurier
-in his 5 cent speech, he said he wouldn’t give 5 cents to any PC supporting province to help with relief (this caused him to lose the election to R.B. Bennett right before the Depression)

R.B. Bennett (Bennett Blanket, buggy, etc.): -Prime minister 1930-1935
-Conservative party leader
-Won on platform to end Great Depression:

○ Bennett Buggy: cars towed by horses

○ Bennett Blanket : newspaper blanket -New Deal (inspired by Roosevelt)

○ Progressive taxation system ○ Maximum work week
○ Minimum wage
○ Better working conditions
○ Unemployment insurance
○ Health and accident insurance ○ Old-age pension

○ Agricultural support program

Causes of Depression:

  1. Buying on margin: putting faith into the fact that prices would continue rising even though they borrowed money to buy their shares, people hoped that eventually the price would be high enough so that they could sell their shares, pay back lenders, and still make a high profit, North America and Europe during peacetime raised funds by going into debt (borrowing from banks, selling bonds)
  2. Lack of financial regulations: participating in the system of credits was risky; lenders and buyers could easily join in the stock market but it was hard to repay loans
  3. Bank Failures: bank deposits were uninsured and people lost many of their savings following the Black Tuesday, banks in the U.S. lost money because they had used depositor’s money to purchase their own stocks, many banks went bankrupt and many people lost their life savings
  4. Black Tuesday (Oct 29, 1929): 16 million shares were sold in the New York stock market and stock values decreased by $30 billion, thousands lost their life savings and went to banks that later got bankrupt
  5. Ripple Effect: with the stock market crash and less spending money for all Americans, people stopped purchasing items leading to reduction in items produced and workforce, many people lost their jobs, Canadian economy also relied on American economy in terms of exports and imports and with less American buying our products, international trade decreased by 50% in Canada, less profit for Canada
  6. Drought in the Prairies: no crops, no profit


-gov’t relief payments to those who had no alternative source of income
-people had to wait in line to publicly declare financial failure and had to meet requirements (no car, no valuable items, etc) before receiving vouchers to buy food, obtaining these vouchers was a humiliating experience

Hitler assumes power (how?):

-joined the Nazis in 1919, writes Mein Kampf in 1923
-more people voted for the Nazis during the Great Depression (in desperate times, people will often turn to extremists like Hitler for a solution)
-Von Papen convinced Hindenburg that Hitler should become Chancellor and Hitler becomes Chancellor in January 1933
-Hitler uses in the Reichstag Fire to frame communists, convincing people that communists were trying to take power by terrorism (Feb 1933)
-Hitler passes the Enabling Act (bans opposition, censors presses, Hitler can rule without questioning other political parties, prisoners rounded up in camps)
-June 1934: Night of Long Knives; Hitler gets rid of opposition political groups by creating a kill list and the SS (defense corps, ‘blackshirts’, elite guard unit) killed over 1000 SA (stormtroopers, ‘brownshirts’, early private Nazi army that protected leaders, opposed rival parties) members overnight

-death of Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler becomes Chancellor and President, calling himself ‘Der Fuhrer’
-controlled the economy, taught young people about the virtues of the Nazi party (racial superiority, Aryan race was the best, fuelled anti-Semitism

-Hitler preyed on people’s fears and was very successful with propaganda, very charismatic, promised to restore Germany, had oratory powers,


-German word for ‘living space’
-Nazis believed that Germans were superior and deserved all the living space they could get -this lead to the Nazis invading other countries and segregating Jews into ghettos

Violation of Versailles Treaty:

  1. Rebuilding Germany’s Army: in 1935, Hitler restarted the conscription process in Germany and built up their countries, even though this was violating the Treaty, no one acted against Hitler due to other countries’ policy of appeasement
  2. Re-militarizing the Rhineland: in 1936, Hitler marched 22,000 troops into the Rhineland, changing the balance of power in Europe from France towards Germany; making it possible for Germany to pursue a policy of aggression in Eastern Europe
  3. Anschluss: annexation, or political union of Austria into a Nazi state in 1938, going against the Treaty to create a larger nation (France and Britain did not object)
  4. Invading Sudetenland: Hitler took over Sudetenland (area in Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived) after the famous Munich Agreement (appeasement from Britain and France)
  5. Taking the rest of Czechoslovakia

*Britain declares war on September 3, 1939 after Germany invades Poland, Canada declares war on the 10th


-lightning war: m ethod of warfare where the attacking force spearheads by a d ense concentration of

a r m o u r e d a n d m o t o r i s e d o r m e c h a n i s e d i n f a n t r y f o r m a t i o n s w i t h c l o s e a i r s u p p o r t , b r e a k s t h r o u g h t h e

opponent’s line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacksand then dislocates the defenders, using [

s p e e d a n d s u r p r i s e t o e n c i r c l e t h e m . T h r o u g h t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f c o m b i n e d a r m s i n m a n o e u v r e w a r f a r e , blitzkrieg attempts to unbalance the enemy by making it difficult for it to respond to the continuously changing front .


-Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 ended tsar rule, civil war for 3 years, economy collapses, Lenin dies in ‘24, Stalin becomes leader in ‘28
-Five Year Plans to transform Russia into modern country, focused on industrialization, collective ownership of agriculture, millions starved, switched focus to heavy industry and economy

-Great Purge got rid of ‘undesirable elements’, around 20 million died under Stalin

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact:

-1939: Germany makes anti-aggression pact with USSR: would divide Poland between the two, share land, peace for 10 years between them
-goal to avoid war on two fronts, no worries for Hitler, Hitler breaks the pact in ‘41 (Operation Barbarossa) by attacking Russia

Battle of the Atlantic:

-German U-Boats attacked merchant ships going to Britain, critical for Allies to keep it open, important for Hitler to shut it down
-corvettes, RCAF, battleships, convoys vs. the wolfpacks of u-boats


-Nuremberg laws state many racial theories in Nazi ideology (primarily that Aryans were the superior race and Jews were bad, anti-semitism)
-Hitler’s “Final Solution”: elimination of all Jews in Europe
-Jews were initially segregated into ghettos (slums where conditions were so bad people died from disease, lack of food, and also murder from the SS)

-were later sent to concentration camps throughout Europe where Jews went through hard labour and death (under direction of Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS and the Einsatzgruppen were responsible for the genocide)
-Jew unable to work (ex. Sick, too young, too old, disabled) were sent to extermination camps like Auschwitz

-extermination from gas chambers, their precious items such as gold teeth were then removed then the bodies were cremated
-of the 11 million Jews in Europe, approximately 5.6 to 6.9 million Jews were killed during the Holocaust

Conscription WWII:

-King needed more people, held a plebiscite to allow gov’t to pass conscription laws
-80% of Canadians outside QC agreed, 72% in QC disagreed, King implements it but they did not have to use it

WWII Homefront:

-45 000 women work in factories, work as drivers, cooks, clerks, messengers, canteen helpers, also called to support in combat zones, 46 died
-economic activity high, many men did not want to leave their farms since economy was recovering and there were shortage of workers

-food scarce, rationed
-wages and prices controlled to prevent excess inflation, income taxes increase for victory bonds -demand for ammunitions: more jobs, unemployment was less than 2%, ‘illegal’ to be unemployed

-gov’t creates Agriculture Food Board to bring together all production into one programme, gigantic contribution for Allies
-racism, hate towards German and Italian Canadians, Japanese interned


-taken by Germany in WWII but returned to France in 1945 (was German territory after French defeat in 1870)
-after WWI, Alsace Lorraine became a part of France in the Treaty of Versailles (similar to Rhineland), Germany and France also argued about it before the war

-population of this territory was forced to join the German army (conscription) -130 000 men involved in some of the worst atrocities against the French -U.S. and France liberated the territory in September of 1944


-death camp in Poland, largest death camp (1⁄6of Jews killed in the Holocaust died in Auschwitz) -1.1 million people died during 4 1⁄2 years at Auschwitz, 144 escaped
-Josef Mengele did medical experiments, most people died in gas chambers

Canadian’s attitude towards WWII:

-not interested in participating because of memories and consequences of WWI
-wanted to stay out of foreign conflicts to concentrate on own issues, PM King prefered that Canada played a role of a supplier

Operation Barbarossa: Germany attacking USSR and breaking Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Operation Husky: Canada’s Italian Campaign, taking Sicily from Germans
Operation Overlord: Allied landing on Normandy beaches, D-Day
Operation Sealion: German attack on RAF to get to Britain

Dunkirk (who help them escape):

-’Miracle at Dunkirk’ was codenamed Operation Dynamo
-evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches and harbours of Dunkirk, France -M ay27-June4,1940, FrenchandBritishweredefeatedintheBattleofFrance
-entire Allied army were trapped at the beaches of Dunkirk and were desperate to escape from the Germans
-over the course of 10 days, many British boats (merchant ships, yachts, rowing boats, etc.) helped evacuated 340 000 British men (French did not have same escape plan so they surrendered to Germans)

D i e p p e ( A u g u s t 1 9 4 2 ) :

-failed test run for Canadian forces to try out new techniques, equipment, strategies, objective was to hold until harbour installations were destroyed

-planned to use advantage of surprise and darkness, but both elements were lost as they ran into a German convoy on the way there and showed up late
-defeated in this deadly battle: 882 killed, 1873 taken, 2200 returned
-some believed lessons were learned (ex. How to pull to shore better, the quality of the sand on the beaches)

-others believed it was Mountbatten’s fault, some believed it was Churchill since he just wanted to show Russians that they were actually fighting too

D-Day (J une 6, 1944) :

-codenamed ‘Operation Overlord’, planned for a long time, since 1941
-Normandy was chosen as landing, was the plan to end the war, Churchill’s plan to open up new front in the west
-many small operations to trick the Germans:

  1. British arrested German spies in 1941 who then were forced to become spies, British gave them false information about Calais and the spies then fed the information to the Germans and tricked them
  2. General George Patton set up a fake army of wooden tanks, planes, etc. in Calais to trick the Germans to think the attack would be there
  3. Set up false communications since the Allies broke the Enigma Code

-J une 6 1944: Eisenhower ordered the invasion
-in 48 hours, 150 000 men were on 5 beaches: Juno (Canadian), Sword and Gold (British), and Omaha and Utah (U.S.)
-Canadians were the only Allied troops to reach objectives (move inland), became the beginning of the end of the war, regained France in the next 11 months
-successful but 1074 Canadian casualties, 359 killed


-57 day bombing campaign of London area after British bombed Belgium following the accidental bombing of London
-Hitler turned his attention to bombing London rather than continuing the air fight against the RAF -upon discovering British radar systems, they stopped bombing London and turned their attention elsewhere

Japanese internment during WWII:

-Japanese were seen as ‘enemy aliens’, especially after Pearl Harbor
-March 1942: rounded up and put into internment camps by RCMP, mostly in B.C.
-men worked for 25 cents a day and after the war, many Japanese citizens did not have homes to return to because their belongings were sold many moved back to Japan or settles in the prairies and Ontario -Denied the right to vote, teach, and work in civil services and other professions.
-Property confiscated and sold at government auction

Manhattan Project:

-Americans lost 1 million men and more was expected
-1939: Einstein wrote to Franklin Roosevelt about atomic bomb (dangers of it, ideas, impacts) -Manhattan Project began August 1942 (tested July 17, 1945), lead by Oppenheimer, scientists did not want to use it
-Harry Truman decided to drop ‘Little Boy’ over Hiroshima on Aug 6, 1945 (80 000 died instantly, 80-100 000 later died)
-’Fat Man’ was dropped over Nagasaki 3 days later (40 000 killed instantly, 60 000 later died)
-Emperor Hirohito surrendered August 15, 1945


-’Night of the Broken Glass’ when the Nazis vandalized Jewish homes, schools, businesses, churches, etc -many Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps or ghettos

Munich Conference:

-Hitler wanted to take Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia and make it part of Germany, claimed many Germans lived there and were mistreated by Czech gov’t -S ept29,1938: MunichConferencewhereHitlermetwithrepresentativesofFrance,UK,andItaly(butno Czech)

-agreement reached from France and UK’s appeasement that allowed Hitler to annex the Sudetenland and he promised not to invade anywhere else
-all 4 countries signed the agreement: Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, Daladier
-Sudetenland was occupied by Germany between Oct 1-10, later broke the agreement by invading the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939


-giving in to aggressive demands of a nation at the expense of justice to avoid war or confrontation -Britain, France, League of Nations’ appeasement to Germany, Italians, and Japanese in Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, and Manchuria was caused by the fear of another war
-they did not think that the Axis powers were such a threat
-wanted to avoid another war, League was a weak organization, though Hitler was no real threat
-led to USSR agreeing on Nazi-Soviet pact, allowed Hitler to believe he could get away with anything, encouraging him to take risks in WWII
-ex. The Munich Conference, invasion of Ethiopia, Manchurian Crisis, annexing Czech, Austria, invasion of Poland


-December 20, 1943: battle between Germans and Canadians in Italy to get to Rome one of the worst battles for Canada
-fighting often house to house, using ‘mouse holing’ technique of blasting through a wall with explosives

-soldiers carried anti-tank weapons and stormed through the holes, scaring the enemy by surprise -Germans held out for more than a week but without reinforcements, suffered many casualties and pulled out on the 28th
-Canadians lost 600 men, around 1300 civilians died during the battle

Unit 3: Cold War, Pursuit of Security

The Cold War

-1945 to 1989
-no direct military conflict but conflict through various means (propaganda, space and arms race, surrogate wars like Korea and Vietnam, espionage), war of words between U.S. (capitalist) and USSR (communist) and their allies

Igor Gouzenko:

-Soviet cipher (1945)
-left the Soviet embassy in Ottawa carrying 100 top secret documents showing that Canadian officials were passing secret information to Soviets and there were Soviet spies in Canada, claimed there were several spy rings in the U.S. and Britain
-information about political activities, troop movements, scientific developments (atomic bomb) -brought attention to Soviet espionage activities in North America
-18 were arrested, only some were found guilty

Truman Doctrine:

-framework for U.S. policy that communism should be contained (they had to get rid of communism and the threat of it, contain communism, and support free people from communism) since the Iron Curtain was movie across Europe
-National Security Act of 1947 established the Doctrine (Department of Defence, National Security Council, CIA was set up)

The Marshall Plan:

-General George Marshall wanted billions of dollars to help economic recovery in Europe, believing it would help prevent communism, successful as the rest of Europe was rebuilt and resisted communism, sixteen European nations took part (ex. Canada sent $706 million)

Berlin Wall

-Americans and British had Western Germany in 1948, Russia wanted the East (Berlin) with the Red Army, introduced new money
-West introduces new money in their part of Berlin: Russia close off roads, railway, waterways, to West Berlin (siege of Berlin)

-Americans airlifted food and supplies into the area for about a year (keeping them alive or else they’ll fall to communism)

-1961: many East Berliners were leaving for the West, economy of East is suffering so USSR builds the Berlin Wall to seal the two cities from each other

Iron Curtain:

-Post WW2 → Soviets kept their troops in Eastern European countries they pushed the Nazis out of -Soviets installed communist governments in theses countries, or there was a rise in communist parties -Tightly controlled travel in / out of Soviet bloc
-Physical / political boundary between Soviet East Europe and democratic West called IRON CURTAIN (from Churchill’s speech)

Warsaw Pact:

-formed in response to NATO
-formed in 1955, alliance included Soviet Union and satellite states (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany)

Red Menace (Senator Eugene McCarthy in ‘witch hunt’ trials):

-President Truman ordered loyalty checks since they were afraid of communists -2nd Red Scare called ‘McCarthyism’ after Joseph McCarthy
-increased fear of communism, political radicalism
-In the US the red scare was about worker (socialist) revolution

-long lists of communist were interrogated, some were arrested, those convicted lost their jobs, -artists, peace activists, union leaders labelled as risks, blacklisted


-North Atlantic Treaty Organization, military alliance of the West set in opposition to Soviets in 1949, democratic, Canada’s first ever peacetime alliance
-conceived by Escott Reid (Canadian External Affairs Official) in 1947, Canada convinced U.S. to join, NATO signed on J uly 23, 1949

-results: Canada is middle power, RCAF bases in Belgium and France in a state of war readiness, other bases in Germany, Soviets create Warsaw Pact
-early radar warning: 1954 Pinetree Line, 1957 Mid-Canada Line, DEW lines


-North American Air (Aerospace) Defence Command this font very nice bye :”)
-Canada and U.S. shared defence need, U.S. pressured Canada to join them and they finally joined when authorities said it was the only way to defend themselves
-included two air defence forces from the two countries, headquarters in Colorado Springs -Diefenbakeracceptedthetermsin1 958, CanadawasundertheAmericandefenceumbrella:Canadahad to join wars it did not want to fight and also had to give up northern territory for defence purposes

-unified system of air defence, fighter forces, missile bases, air defence radar from the threat of Soviet bombers
-both sides developed InterContinental Ballistic Missiles (ICMB): made DEW lines obsolete since ICMB were faster than DEW lines

-DEW Line: Distant Early Warning radar from missiles Vietnam:

-warbeganin1 954, oneofthesurrogate/proxywarsoftheColdWar,aftertheriseofHoChinMinhand his communist party in North Vietnam and continued against the backdrop of an intense Cold War between US and USSR
-Post WW2 → communist North (USSR) and democratic South (US)

-US involved to prevent Communist takeover of South Vietnam, containing communism -3 million people killed, 158 000 Americans, 500 000 U.S. military personnel involved -1975: communist forces seized control of Saigon, ending the Vietnam War


-5 Oct 1957
-Soviet Union put first man made object into the space (Sputnik)
-A month after Sputnik, Sputnik 2 launched with Laika (dog)
-Created a huge shock because US was the only power who could stand against USSR
-December 1957, Nasa was created ( N ational Aeronautics and Space Administration ) was given control of all non-military space activities.


-1945: North Korea surrenders to Japan and South surrenders to Americans, North proposed a reunification
-war broke out on June 25, 1950 when North invaded the South, Truman got involved within 24 hours, his doctrine also applied to Asia
-June 27: UN Security Council passes resolution to help South Korea (U.S. were already involved) -Canadian volunteer troops were sent and after 3 years of fighting 300 Canadians died and 1000 were wounded
-U.S. General McArthur not only pushed the North back but decided to take over the North as well (disobeying orders), U.S. were stopped when Chinese armies crushed them in the North, Truman suggested nuclear intervention of cease fire
-Truman fires McArthur, armistice is signed on July 27, 1953

Cuban Missile Crisis:

-beganonO ctober22,1962 afterPresidentKennedynoticesSovietsbuildingmissilesitesinCubathat could launch a nuclear attack against the U.S.

-U.S. Navy forms a blockade around Cuba and Kennedy threatens to take military action if Krushchev did not turn back the ships, for 5 days Krushchev refused to call back ships, creating tensions and paranoia of a nuclear war
-crisis ended when Krushchev finally calls back ship

Diefenbaker during Cuban Missile Crisis:

-Kennedy requested that Canada put its armed forces on military alert and Deifenbaker was outraged that Kennedy did not consult him beforehand (wanting to demonstrate Canadian independence from U.S. foreign policy)
-Canadian forces put on alert but formal authorization for the alert did not come until 2 days later, believing he had taken a stand for Canadian independence by delaying authorization

Suez Crisis:

-1 956: Gamel Abdel Nasser (president of Egypt) takes control of the Suez Canal from Britain to France (important for oil shipping)
-Britain and France convince Israel to attack Egypt, then orders both of them to withdraw (Nasser refuses) -Britain and France bomb canal zone, USSR condemned them and threatens attacks on Paris and London, U.S. gets mad at Britain and France, commonwealth countries split (support for Egypt vs support from Britain)

-Lester Pearson (UN ambassador before he was PM)suggests to the UN that they send peacekeeping force run by nations to defuse the situation (Canada involved in all peacekeeping missions since then)

Space Race

-USSR launches Sputnik I in October of 1957, they could now deliver warheads anywhere in North America, DEW line becomes obsolete, missile gap present between US and USSR
-fear that Soviets were more advanced in technology led North Americans to spend more money on education

-Kennedy promises to go to the moon by the end of the 60s, Canada sends satellites Alouette, Alouette II, ISIS, ISIS II

Avro Arrow:

-Liberal gov’t wanted to develop a new fighting jet (Avro Arrow), asked the A.V. Roe Company to make the Avro Arrow, gov’t was willing to buy 600 for $2 million each
-cost became an issue, air force then cut its interest to 100 planes, no foreign buyers were interested (final cost to buy one was $6-10 million)

-people though that the Arrow would soon become obsolete anyways after Sputnik I was sent into space by the Soviets
-1957: Arrow was unveiled and people (including Diefenbaker) questioned if this was still necessary -project was canceled after initial denials, everything destroyed and 14 000 people fire, engineers were hired by NASA and other American organizations

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1 948) :

-international law: basic civil, economic, social, and political rights, regardless of political system they lived under
-John Humphrey (law professor at McGill U) helped draft the document, the Declaration became a model for Canada’s Charters of Rights and Freedoms in 1982


-Mutually Assured Destruction, if one country bombs another, the country bombed will bomb that country back in defence and revenge; this was actually what prevented anyone from bombing
-military strategists argued that arms race could help prevent a nuclear attack because of MAD, neither would dare attack the other since both nations would be destroyed

Newfoundland’s entry into Confederation (‘49):

-issues whether they should join since 1864, attended QC conference but did not sign, deciding they could survive on their own
-with the Depression, Newfoundland entered a new phase, relationship with Canada, and joining Confederation made sense, British though the same

-referendums held 1948 showed that majority of Newfoundlanders agreed as well, Newfoundland became a part of Canada on March 31, 1949


-created in 1931: autonomous nations (Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa) -focus on trade and aid, not military
-South Africa kicked out in 1961


-North American Free Trade Agreement (U.S., Canada, Mexico), 1994
-some people believed it would force Canadians to accept lower wages and lower standards, some say it would lead to our expansion, other say we are too dependent on the U.S. for our economy

United Nations:

-Formedin1 945, 50countrieslobbyingforanorganizationtokeepworldpeace,defendhumanrightsand promote socio/economic health development globally
-United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
-World Health Organization (WHO)

-Canada’s goal to keep “Big Five” countries from drafting medium powers into conflict (listed Charter) -UN Charter of rights & freedoms list the basic civil, economic, social, and political rights that every country should have

-Big Five of the UN → US, UK, Britain, China, Russia, and France
-succeeded for assistance for natural disasters, development and peacekeeping (condemnation, sanctions, military if necessary

Louise Arbour (International Criminal Court):

-Carries cut research on violent conflict and policies to prevent mitigate and resolve conflict -Lot of president and CEO of ICG
-Commissioner for Human Rights
-Works with governments, multilateral organizations.

Unit 4

Pierre Trudeau (role in October Crisis, repatriation of Constitution in 1982):

-born into wealth and privilege in 1919, fought for social justice in QC (ex.against conscription in university, criticized Canada’s gov’t for accepting US nuclear weapons)
-became Justice Minister in 1967, Pearson retires this year and Trudeau becomes successor, Canada’s 15th PM after calling an election in 1968

-night of ‘68 election, Trudeau was at St. Jean Baptiste Day Parade and violence erupts but Trudeau calmly stays there: earns him respect across Canada
-won 45.5% of votes (majority gov’t
-Trudeau was witty, charismatic, young compared to other PMs, spontaneous, let young women kiss him, drove a sports car, wore cool clothes etc, popular because change of social norms

-October Crisis: sent in troops, evoked War Measures Act (first time in peacetime)
-repatriation of Constitution ( t o transfer (legislation, control) to the authority of an autonomous country from its previous mother country): Trudeau promised new Constitution in 1982 during the first QC referendum, provinces agreed to sign it behind closed door on the night of November 4/5., QC does not sign

Just Society:

-balance between individual liberty and social justice, multiculturalism: promoting multiculturalism and encouragement of cultures, Canada was a multicultural mosaic, spending and prioritizing to preserve culture
-made all provinces equal

-ethnic groups should preserve their cultures, Canada should not be a melting pot (1978 Immigration Act) -expanded divorce laws (reasons for), reformed Criminal Code in areas of abortion, prostitution, decriminalized homosexuality
-”one nation with two languages or, ultimately two separate nations”

Quiet Revolution:
-Time of rapid change in Quebec – gov took control of province

-time of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in QC, characterized by secularization of society, creation of welfare state and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereignists factions and eventual election or pro-sovereignty provincial gov’t in 1976 election
-1960 QC provincial election winner was Liberal Jean Lesage

-major reforms:
•1963 Parent Report on Education
•recommended that the province control education, church system could not meet the needs of

Baby boom

•creation of Catholic and Protestant systems operated under new Ministry of Education •health and welfare was provincial concern
•nationalized the hydro industry (Hydro Quebec)
•’masters in our own house”, working language was French

-Quebec developed under Duplessis and Union Nationale → cost of personal freedom, and real progress -Duplessis died 1959 → Liberals elected 1960

Jean Lesage (Suez, Maitre Chez Nous)

-father of the Quiet Revolution, rapid and drastic change of values, attitudes and behaviours in QC society characterized by QC nationalism following his electoral success in 1960
-1962: Liberal Party of QC won the re-election with campaign promising the nationalization of hydro with the Maitre Chez Nous (Masters in Our Own Home) slogan

Official Languages Act:

-1969: case growing tension over French English language rights, components:

  • ○  Give equal status between both languages
  • ○  Either language used in parliament, federal courts, etc
  • ○  Both recognized and used where there are large majorities in either language
  • ○  Civil service should be bilingual
  • ○  Schools in Ottawa (bilingual district) should have English and French education
  • ○  Consisted of : English and French = both official languages → can be used in only

    government office
    -to resolve political problems and create better society, Western Canada did not like it but neither did QC nationalists
    -Trudeau was dissatisfied with the Act because it did not constitute mate guarantee language and individual rights, would take 13 years to achieve

    Bill 85:

    -introduced in 1968 to protect French language (lower birth rate and higher immigration threatened the French language), did not become a law since it was a controversy
    -Gendron Commission created to study the problem, 1972: found that English dominated the workplace and French earned less

-Commission recommended that French be the official language of the province and workplace, all signs must be in French

Bill 22:

-passed in 1974, French became the first official language of public administration and limited English schooling since 90% of immigrants wanted to go to English school
-French encouraged in workplace, English thought they went too far, French think not far enough

Bill 101:

-Passed in 1977 by PQ, was to strengthen Bill 22 by adding more regulations -Children in Quebec must be taught in French
-There were acceptance to English speaking minorities

○ A parent had to be educated in English in Quebec
○ A parent was educated outside of Quebec, but lived in Quebec before August 1977 ○ The child’s older siblings were attending English school

-Bill 101 stated that all products and signs must be labeled in French, if translation was added, it must be smaller than French, French became the official languages of the work place
-strictly enforced, fines were high, many left Quebec after this was passed (50 000 in 6 months)

October Crisis (1970):

-Kidnapping and murder of Pierre Laporte (provincial cabinet minister, Oct 5)
-Kidnapping and release of James Cross (British Diplomat, Oct 10)
-Trudeau invoked War Measures Act, only time in Peacetime, deployed Canadian forces through Quebec -Support for Parti Quebecois rose

War Measures Act:

-Allowed for emergency action measures to be taken, Canadian forces assisted police
-during the October 1970 Crisis as James Cross and Pierre Laporte were kidnapped and killed, Bourassa asked Trudeau for help and he evoked the War Measures Act, sending in troops to QC City and Montreal -Goal to find and stop FLQ members
-Took away rights of individuals

Pierre Laporte:

-Canadian lawyer, journalist, politician, became Deputy Premier and Minister of Labour for Quebec -Assassinated by Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ), Robert Bourassa asks Trudeau for help, Trudeau evokes War Measures Act and sends in troops
-Body found in trunk of Paul Roses’ car

-Kidnappers arrested and sentenced for murder

James Cross:

-The British trade commissioner to Canada
-Was kidnapped by the FLQ on October 5, 1970 -First in a series of events called the October Crisis -Was rescued 59 days later from an FLQ cell


-Front de Libération de Québec
-Goal : creation of an independent Quebec state, wanted to liberate QC through violence, used letter bombs, targeted English businesses, destroyed statue of General Wolfe
-Founded in 1963, dissolved in 1970
-Notable attack : Montreal stock exchange bombing, kidnapping 2 government officials

Sovereignty Association:

-A proposed arrangement by which Quebec would become independent, but would maintain a formal association with Canada
-Written by Rene Levesque, part of the Option Quebec, was called the PQ government (1980)

René Lévesque:

-Reporter, a minister of the Jean Lesage’s Liberal Government (1960-66), the founder of the Parti Quebecois after convincing Liberals to split in 1967, became leader of PQ in 1968, wanted to break up Canada
-Entered politics in 1960 as a start candidate elected to the legislative Assembly of Quebec in 1960 election

-Parti Quebecois purpose was to resolve Quebec’s historic and economic grievances by creating the conditions for independent Quebec
-PQ proposed argument with federal gov’t, separatist said it would break up Canada
-PQ wanted referendum to separate from Canada and enforce French language in Quebec

1980 Referendum

-QC wanted to separate from Canada, PQ published a White Paper: “Quebec/Canada: A New Deal”, listed complaints and plans for sovereignty association, independence from Canada
-referendum held on May 20, 1980: Lévesque (yes), Claude Ryan (no), referendum question was carefully worded to get people to vote yes

-yes side winning until Trudeau sent politicians to speak to ‘dumb housewives’ who rallied against separation
-no side won with slightly less that 60%, lead Trudeau to create a new constitution

The New Constitution
-controversial, 1971: 10 premiers agreed but QC did not

-old constitution was the BNA act, this new constitution would make Canada a country without Britain -Oct 10, 1980: 8 out of 10 that no longer supported the changes moved on and ended the debate in the House of Commons, people screaming and MP had to be restrained
-took it to Supreme Court in September 1981: Ottawa could ask Britain to amend Canada’s constitution without provincial consent, Trudeau would need majority of the provinces’ support

-N ovember 1981: First Ministers met in Ottawa and argued for 4 days
-November 5, 1:30 am:Newfoundland premier writes out text and at 2am, many premiers sign behind closed doors
-in the morning, 9 premiers of the federal gov’t had worked out a compromise, Levesque did not agree and was furious (Canada’s Night of Long Knives), premiers had removed QC’s veto power
-veto: right to say no to constitutional changes, instead of the veto, Trudeau gave QC a notwithstanding clause

Bloc Québecois (Lucien Bouchard):

-Lucien Bouchard was founder of Bloc Quebecois after quitting the PC, central figure in the yes side of the 1980 referendum, QC nationalist and sovereigntist
-Bouchard was given leadership during the yes side of the 1995 referendum after Parizeau started to plateau

Meech Lake Accord:

-trying to reach agreement on Constitution between QC and provinces, meeting on April 30, 1987 at Meech Lake, focused on recognizing QC as a ‘distinct society’ (giving more powers to QC), restricting federal gov’t spending power, veto to all provinces, aboriginal self government
-tried to reach agreement, all provinces had to agree within 3 years, QC felt it was not given enough power -tried to ratify agreement in Manitoba but all members of legislature had to agree

-Elijah Harper, a Cree member said no since the accord did not recognize Natives as an equal partner, killed the accord
-Lucien Bouchard quits Conservatives and forms the Bloc Quebecois, wanting independence

Charlottetown Accord:

-1991: Joe Clark leads committee to ask Canadians what they wanted to happen to Canada
-premiers met in Charlottetown in August 1992, joined by aboriginal leaders as well, Bourassa did not go -agreed to recognize aboriginal self-gov’t, QC’s distinct society, veto for provinces
-there would be 2 referendums to ratify the agreement, one in Canada, one in Quebec
-54% of Canadians and 56% of Quebecers rejected the Accord
-Canada loses faith in Mulroney, resigns and is replaced by Kim Campbell

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

-Trudeau’s last term, returns to vision of ‘just society’ in ‘79
-’82: gov’t passes the Charter, protecting the rights of individual Canadians

-Charter enshrined rights for women, natives, guaranteed equality without discrimination of race, national/ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age, or mental/physical disability
-women campaigned hard for women rights and equality in Section 28
-natives pushed for respect of land claims in Section 25

-Charter would not resolve all controversies but did allow minorities a place to stand, ground to defend, aid
-Trudeau wanted the Charter to be entrenched as a part of the Canadian Constitution, patriated from Britain

Charter and Natives:

-1985: women regained status if they married someone not native
-1988: could collect property taxes if leasing land
-pushing towards self-gov’t, Supreme Court ruled in 1990 that they had the right to hunt/fish for social and ceremonial purposes
-Oka Crisis of 1990: mohawks fighting for their land that others wanted to turn into a golf course, natives set up barricades, QC police officer was killed, Armed Forces brought in, standoff was 78 days and sometimes violent
-brought to light issues on treaties, land claims, and self-gov’t

Shortest serving PMs of last 20 years:

-Kim Campbell was PM for less than a year
-first and only female PM, served 132 days after Brian Mulroney resigns
-1993 election was won by landslide by Chrétien and Liberals (people associated all PCs like Campbell with Mulroney)

1995 Referendum:

-1994 PQ lead by Jacques Parizeau, October 30, 1995 was set for referendum date
-Parizeau was on the yes side, Quebec would reach its full potential by separating (new jobs, new constitution, better schools, etc)
-would still remain Canadian citizenship, use Canadian money, have Canadian passport, and be a part of NAFTA (no one knew if these claims were true)
-US President Clinton got involved saying Canada has been a model of how people of different cultures work together in peace, prosperity, and respect (hinting that QC would not be part of NAFTA)
-first nations supported no side, yes side lost momentum so Lucien Bouchard takes over
-50.6% Quebecers against referendum, 49.4% for

Unit 5: Canadian-American Relations

Auto Pact:

-1964: auto assembly plants struggling due to high tariffs and Canadians couldn’t afford cars
-Auto Pact was signed January 1965, a free trade agreement that demanded the Americans assemble one car in Canada for every car they sold in Canada

Brian Mulroney (relationship to U.S.):

-Brian Mulroney’s Progressive Conservatives won 211/282 seat in 1984 ( more than any Canadian party had ever won)
-Mulroney came from Quebec, but his parents were Irish immigrants
-In 1956, Mulroney joined the PC Party, under Diefenbaker (age 17)

-He promised less government intervention with the economy and forge closer trading ties to the US -He brought us closer to the US through trade and allowed big businesses to control the economy

Branch Plant

-Early 20th century in Canada, new idea of building a plant or factory in Canada that is owned by a foreign country, no tariffs
-automobile manufacturing in Ontario
-NAFTA destroyed “the Branch Plant”

-Big Auto lobbied Ontario and federal government

1. Canada-U.S. relations (changes in our relationship, U.S. influence on

culture, politics, trade)

Pre Confed:

  •  relationship between Canada and US not stable.
  •  US: independent, defiance of Britain (1776 American Revolution), cut all British ties
  •  Canada: monarchy, British subjects, still viewed itself as British colony, parliamentary system
  •  1866-US ended reciprocity with Canada.
  •  The US didn’t like Britain because it had fought Britain to gain independence . Britain also

    supported the south in the civil war, but the north won.

  •  Manifest Destiny: US wanted control of all North America. They declared war and invaded, till

    Britain sent its troops.

  •  People were moving the US, because back then Canada didn’t have prairies
  •  Confederation would mean Canada was its own self governing country versus colonies of Britain,

    ∴ US less likely to attack.

    Post Confed- Pre WW1

  •  Liberals favoured free trade, Conservatives didn’t
  •  1900s Canada felt threatened by the US
  •  1935: most favoured nation status to the US, lowered US tariff on 2⁄3of Canada’s exports
  •  Displayed military strength in victories over Spain, by winning control of Cuba and the Philippines
  •  Meanwhile Britain wanted to have good relations with the US, and was willing to give up Canada’s

    best interests in order to do so.

  •  Alaska Boundary Dispute: US bought Alaska from Russia in 67’, this included a pan handle of

    coastal land, but exact boundaries were not given so Canada Britain and US went to discuss

    where the final boundary should be drawn. (4 judge panel, 2 US, 1 Can, 1 Brit)

  •  US wanted a certain boundary, and was not giving it up, and since Britain wanted to be on good

    terms with the US, they accepted their terms.

  •  Canada’s nationalism was stirred and they grew resentment towards the US AND Britain.
  •  The US’s closing of borders helped the Laurier Government’s open door policy.
  •  Laurier changed the national policy to stop promotion of free trade with the US.
  •  Towards the end of his term, Laurier wanted reciprocity. Tariffs on manufactured goods would

    remain, as industrialists wanted them, but natural resources (farming) would be free trade. Sadly

    neither Sifton, nor Bourassa agreed with him.

  •  Conservatives (Borden) didn’t like this so they made it their campaign to directly oppose this .

    They won, so there was protectionism, no trade with the US


  •  US didn’t officially consider itself an ally in WW1, and only joined in 1917,
  •  On April 6th, US broke its neutrality and joined WW1.
  •  After WW1 , Canada slowly turned towards wanting more independence from Britain, grows

    closer to the U.S. (most-favoured nation status)

  •  1922: They increased pulp, paper, wheat and mineral trade with the US.
  •  By 1925 there were a lot of Branch plants from the US in Canada.
  • ●  With the invention of radio and television, American culture gained stronger foothold in Canada
  • ●  Many Canadians worried that their culture would be wiped out
  • ●  Others wanted to unite with the US, which sparked the continentalist debate
  • ●  In 1927, King established the first foreign mission to the US
  • ●  A 1935 trade treaty granted the status of most favoured nation. This lowered the US tariff on 2⁄3of Canadian exports
  • ●  A 1938 amendment lowered US tariff on 80% of Canadian exports
  • ●  Until WW2, Canada relied mostly on Britain for protection. After a shift to rely more on the US
  • ●  Canada and U.S. work together in WWII
  • ●  In the Cold War era, Canada became closer with the US over defence matters
  • ●  NORAD was formed in 1958 to defend Canadian and American air space from Soviet air strikes
  • ●  They worked together on projects like the DEW line, NORAD, NATO
  • ●  The US pressured the Canadian government behind the scenes to shut down the first/only

    Canadian military breakthrough: The Avro Arrow

  • ●  During the debates/ controversies over stationing nuclear weapon in Canada, American laws

    contributed by stating that weapons on Canadian soil would be under American control. This

    upset Diefenbaker, as well as others

  • ●  The idea of nuclear weapons in Canada gained popularity after the Cuban Missile Crisis
  • ●  New Deal in the ‘30s, also influenced by Roosevelt’s policies
  • ●  Many Canadians feared losing their Canadian identity, Canada-US relations intensify with pop

    culture and economic reliance

  • ●  Trade agreements in the 80s and 90s completed the move towards a U.S.-dominated Canada

    (seems as though Canada is a colony with US rather than Britain)

    English-French relations (issues that divided us)

    1. Manitoba Schools Act:

-French: thought it was unfair for them to stop funding for French Catholic schooling, felt that their rights were being denied, felt betrayed and unhappy
-English: indifferent, happy with compromise, education is a provincial matter Manitoba should decide, why should they pay for French in schools

2. The Boer War

-English: wanted to help Britain fight as they were loyal to the crown, Britain also expected them to help them fight
-French: conflict that alienated the French, did not want to participate since they weren’t linked to UK in any way (Laurier compromises that he would send volunteers but Britain would help pay for them), became obvious to Quebecers that English Canadians considered themselves more British than Canadians

3. Louis Riel Rebellion

-negotiated Manitoba Act with gov’t (Métis land would be protected but all other lands were Dominions of Canada, guaranteed French language in funded Catholic schools)
-thought Métis were treated unfairly, set up gov’ts in Métis territory, English did not like this, MacDonald sends in military to crush the rebellion

-Riel hung for treason, Quebec were angry and viewed Riel as a hero, English thought he was a traitor

4. The Naval Crisis

-English: Britain in race with Germany to build larger navy, English Canadians eager to help pay to support -French: did not want to help Britain (Laurier compromises that Canada would have its own navy that UK could use in times of war)

5. Conscription Crises in WWI and WWII

-during the two world wars, French Canada’s concern was recognition as a non-British nation, they wanted a French voice, protect their language and culture, concern grew to become l a survivance
-WWI: French are hesitant to enlist, no ties to Britain, only about 35 000 enlist, many French opposed conscription in 1917 since they did not have ties to Britain

-WWII: 72% in Quebec disagree, 80% outside of Quebec agree

6. Quiet Revolution

-Pearson tried to appease it by setting up Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, offers QC more representation in the federal cabinet
-Charles de Gaulle’s call to separatism (Vive the Quebec Libre!, 1976) was followed by Trudeau evoking the War Measures Act to deal with the FLQ

-after 1987, Quebec separatists weren’t the only ones dissenting the voice of English-French debate; The Reform Party formed in Alberta, challenging the gov’t about this issue, they wanted to make all provinces equal regardless of cultures
-as century drew to a close, Chrétien faced 2 separatist parties: Bloc and Parti Québecois

-1995: voters in the 2nd QC referendum chose to star within Canada, winning by less that 1%, QC was connected to Canada by a very thin thread

7. Bill 85, 22, 101

-the Bills in 60s and 70s that were controversial in protecting the French language and culture, ex: all children taught in French, all signs in French, no English, riot between English and French, limiting English schooling

8.Referendum in 1980 and 1995

1980: Levesque and PQ wanted QC to be separate from Canada, yes side winning until ‘dumb housewives’ rallied against it, no side wins with less than 60% of vote, Levesque accuses no side of unfair tactics, Trudeau creates new Constitution
1995: Parizeau sets referendum date to Oct 30, 1995, he promises Canadian citizenship and passports, etc, as well as part of NAFTA if they separate, said it would lead to new jobs and better schools, no side wins barely by 50.6% of vote, yes side with 49.4%

9. FLQ, October Crisis

-FLQ terrorist group kidnaps a British trade commissioner and Minister of Labour, destroys General Wolfe statue, targets English businesses: October Crisis

Canada-British relations (from colony to dominion to nation)

-entering the 20th century, Canada was not yet independent, was still British colony, British subjects, union jack flag
1. Boer War
-British war in South America, expected Canadian troops to help them in 1899, Canadians eager to volunteer to help the British

2. Naval Crisis

-British was in navy and arms race with Germany, Canadians wanted to help pay for Britain’s military

3. Chanak Crisis (1922)

-PM King wants to make it clear to Britain that only the Parliament of Canada would decide whether or not to send Canadian troops if Britain went to war
-after a British crisis in Turkey, Britain expected Canada to back them up with military support but King rejects their demands and made it clear that they would make their own military decisions

4. Halibut Treaty (1923)

-first international treaty to be signed by a Canadian, not British official

5. Diplomatic posts (1927-29)

-Canada appoints its first ambassadors, diplomats, and embassies in foreign countries (ex. US, Paris, Tokyo)
-Canada is also elected to the Council of the League of Nations
-Britain appoints a high commissioner in Ottawa where communication between the two would take place

6. Balfour Report (1926)

-imperial conference of 1926: Balfour Report states that Britain, Canada, and other dominions were self-governing countries with equal status, the governor general is the only representative of the British monarch

7. Statute of Westminster (1931)

-1930s: King resolutely pushes Canada towards autonomy
-British statute that gave legal status to pass the Balfour Report of ‘26
-specified that Britain could not pass laws on the dominions of disallow the dominions’ own laws -British Empire becomes the British Commonwealth of Nations, birth of the Commonwealth

8. Imperial Conferences
1921: PM Meighen states that Canada’s destiny was nationhood within the British Empire, assumed that Canada could influence foreign policy
1923: P M King announces that the Canadian Parliament has the right to make their own decisions regarding domestic and foreign issues
1926: birth of the Balfour Declaration, giving equal status to all British dominions

9.WWI and WWII

-1914: Canada was automatically at war with Germany since Britain had declared war on them -1939: Canada proves its independence by declaring war 10 days after Britain, entering WWII with international recognition as an independent nation

10. Supreme Court of Canada replaces Judicial Committee of the British Privy Council in 1949

11. Trudeau repatriates Canada’s Constitution in 1982

-Canada’s constitutional ties to Britain ended when the Canada Act of 1982 was passed to patriate Canada’s constitution

12. Ties to Britain (governor general, the Queen)

-formal economy relations and ties have declined, both countries are in separate trade blocs, the EU and NAFTA, still continue to have positive and profound influence on one another