Diagrams for Geography Exam
- Profile of Canada √
- Factors that determine climate
- Hydrologic cycle √
- Rock cycle √
- How glaciers move√
- Three types of precipitation (choose one to study) √
- Climate, soils, vegetation connection – prairies??
- Global pattern of air circulation √
- Settlement patterns √
- Survey systems √
- Niagara Fruit Belt √
- Bioaccumulation √
GEOGRAPHY DEFINITIONS (Definitions are given, need to know what word to describe the definitions /40)
- Direct Statement: This scale is written in words: 1cm to 1km, or 1cm represents 1km. This means that 1cm on the map represents 1km on the earth’s surface.
- Representative Fraction: This scale is written in numbers as ratio: 1:100 000 or 1/100 000. This means that 1cm on the map represents 1km on the earth’s surface.
- Linear Scale: This scale is shown as a divided line.
- Scale Conversion: Changing one type of scale to another.
- Latitude: distance measured in degrees north and south of the equator (0°). Each degree is subdivided into minutes and seconds. (60 min in a degree, 60 sec in a min)
- Longitude: measured in degrees east and west of the Prime Meridian (0°). Each degree is subdivided into min and sec. The International Date Line roughly follows 180° longitude.
- Continental Drift: Theory developed by German Scientist Alfred Wegner. States 300 million years ago continents drifted and collided to form Pangaea, 200 million years ago broke apart and drifted to current placements.
- Plate Tectonics: Theory developed by Canadian J. Tuzo Wilson. States that the earth’s outer shell consists of plates that move causing earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains and the formation of a new crust.
- Erratics: Huge boulders carried long distances by the glacier and then deposited.
- Zone of Accumulation: The area where snow builds up from year to year and is eventually compressed into ice.
- Esker: A winding ridge of gravel deposited by a river, under or in a glacier.
- Misfit Stream: Rivers much smaller than the valleys in which they flow.
- Drumlin: Oval hills of deposits aligned in the direction the glacier is moving.
- Alpine Glacier: A sheet of ice that flows down from high elevations to lower ones.
- Till Plain: A gently rolling area formed by materials deposited under an ice sheet.
- Till: The unsorted mixture of soil and rocks carried along by the glacier and washed out.
- Moraine: A ridge of material deposited by a glacier along its sides or at its end.
- Striations: Lines scraped or gouged out in the bedrock by rocks frozen into the bottom of the glacier.
- Continental Glacier: A large ice sheet that spreads outward because of its own weight.
- U-Shaped Valley: The feature left behind when an alpine glacier melts.
- Spillway: Huge valleys carved out by large volumes of melt water.
- Kettle Lakes: Small bodies of water formed where stranded blocks of ice eventually melt.
- Fiord: Long, narrow inlet of the seas with steep sides. Created by glaciers that scraped out valleys, when the glaciers melted, the sea flooded the valleys.
- Igneous Rock: Rock formed from the cooling molten rock (magma or lava).
- Metamorphic Rock: Type of rock formed when sedimentary and igneous rocks are subjected to great heat and pressure.
- Sedimentary Rock: Rock usually formed in the layers from the compression of sediments.
- Climate: Weather conditions of a place averaged over a long period of time.
- Dry Adiabatic Rate: Rate of cooling below the condensation level 1°C/100m.
- Wet Adiabatic Rate: Rate of heating or cooling above the condensation level 0.6°C/100m.
- Continental Climate: Climate types that develops away from the influence of the ocean. The annual temperature range tends to be large and precipitation is low.
- Maritime Climate: Climate type that is strongly influenced by the closeness of an ocean or other large body of water. The annual temperature range tends to be small and precipitation is high.
- Air Mass: Large body of air having same moisture and temperature conditions throughout.
- Prevailing Winds: Winds that are most commonly found in an area. Eg/ over most of Canada, the prevailing winds are Westerlies, which blow from west to east.
- Polar Front: Stormy boundary between cold, dry polar air and warm, moist tropical air.
- Jet Stream: West to east movement of air in the mid-latitude flowing at speeds of up to 400km/h at an altitude of between 8 000 and 15 000m.
- Warm Front: Boundary between a cold air mass and an advancing warm air mass.
- Cold Front: Boundary between a warm air mass and an advancing cold air mass.
- Heterogeneous Population: Varied immigrants and population.
- Homogeneous Population: Most of the same immigrants and population, predominantly one ethnic group.
- Birth Rate: Number of births/1000 people.
- Death Rate: Number of deaths/1000 people.
- Immigration Rate: Number of new Canadians who have immigrated here from another country/1000 people of Canada’s population.
- Emigration Rate: Number of people/1000 population in one year who emigrate.
- Natural Increase Rate: Difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country.
- Net Migration Rate: Difference between people immigrating to a country and people emigrating from the same country.
- Population Growth Rate: Measurement which combines both natural increase and net migration to calculate the overall growth of a country’s population.
- Death Control: Controlling deaths. Eg/Abortion and Suicide.
- Birth Control: Controlling when you will get pregnant.
- Rule of 70: Dividing 70 by the population growth rate to estimate how many years it will take for a population to double itself.
- Dependency Load: Proportion of the population that must be supported. Under 14 and over 65.
- Population Pyramid: Graph that portrays population distribution by age and gender.
- Mother Tongue: The first language you learned to speak in the home and can still speak.
- Push Factor: Factor that makes people want to leave their country. Eg/ lose job, high taxes, sick of Canadian winters, war, famine or disease.
- Pull Factor: Factor that attracts someone to another country. Eg/ milder winters, close friends and relatives, lower taxes, good job opportunities, peace or free country.
- Intervening Obstacles: Thing stopping or discouraging people from immigrating to a country such as immigration requirements, the distances involved, and the costs of immigration.
- Population Distribution: Refers to the pattern of where people live in a region or even in the entire country. (WHERE?)
- Population Density: Figure calculated by dividing the population of a region by the region’s area. (number of people who live in each km2 of land) (HOW MANY?)
- Survey System: A pattern of land division or set of rules in an area that controls; which land would be settled, size, shape of farm, pattern of roads and location of town sites, schools and churches.
- Hierarchy of Urban Services: Small towns —– Few services
Larger town/Small city —– Wider range of services
Very large cities —– All types of services
- Multiplier Effect: Total effect on the economy caused by an expansion or contraction in one part of it. New Factory or Losing Major Factory.
- Threshold Population: Number of customers needed to make a business profitable or to allow a service, such as a post office or library, to be offered.
- Hydrologic Cycle: Pathway followed by water from oceans and lakes through the atmosphere and then back to the land and waterways.
- In stream Use: Use of water without removing it from its source for activities. Eg/ fishing, hydroelectric power.
- Withdrawal Use: Water that is permanently removed from a river for consumption in homes, industries, agricultural or business.
- Drainage Basin: The area drained by a river and its tributaries.
- Water Shed: An area of high land that separates one drainage basin from another.
- Developed Country: A country with a highly developed economy. Its citizens have high incomes, abundant food, good housing, and can afford many luxuries. Sometimes called “industrialized”.
- Newly Industrialized Country: Countries in the transition stage between developing and developed countries. NIC’s typically have rapidly growing economies.
- Developing Country: A country with a poorly developed economy; its citizens have low incomes, shortages of food, poor housing, and cannot afford luxuries. Sometimes called “less developed”.
- Leaching: The downward movement of soluble mineral and organic matter by percolating water.
- Translocation: The downward movement of solid matter by water and soil animals.
- Capillary Movement: While the upward movement of water in the soil during drought.
- Ecological Footprint: Measure of total human impact on an ecosystem.
- Greenhouse Effect: Absorption of heat energy by greenhouse gases and reradiation into the atmosphere.
- Greenhouse Gas: Gas that contributes to global warming such as carbon dioxide and methane. Eg/water vapour.
- Foreign Aid: Expertise, money, and products given by rich countries to poorer countries.
- Export: Product or service produced in one country for sale in another country.
- Import: Product that is brought into a country from another country.
- Doubling Time: How long it would take for a country’s population to double at the country’s current rate of population growth.
Unit 4: Global Connections Review
- Ecological Footprint: Shows how a person lives environmentally and naturally.
- explain how my ecological footprint can be reduced
Canada’s Population Problem
- How does Canada’s consumption of natural resources compare to the developing world?
Canadians enjoy the benefits of abundant natural resources, many of which we use at a per capita rate roughly 40 times more than our counterparts in the developing world. Canadian energy consumption is 7-10 times that of our neighbours in the developing world.
- How much waste does each Canadian produce daily?
Each day, Canadians produce more waste per person (1.8kg) than any other country.
Earth’s Water Supply
- What percentage of the earth’s water is: a) saltwater? b) freshwater?
- Sketch and explain the Hydrologic Cycle.
Air Rises Cools Condenses Forms Clouds Precipitation
- How has the urban/rural composition of Canada changed in the last 150 years?
150 years ago: 80% rural 20% urban
Now: 20% rural 80% urban
- Which three provinces have lost the most farmland in the last 20 years?
Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia.
- What percentage of Canada’s class 1 and 2 land can be seen from the top of the CN Tower?
37% Class One and 25% Class Two
- Explain the factors that make the Niagara Fruit Belt such a productive region. Include a sketch of the topography and explain its advantages in terms of climate.
- What other region of Canada has these same benefits?
Situated in the southernmost part of the country, it experiences Canada’s longest growing season and frost free period. Frost can easily destroy the delicate blossoms and developing buds in the spring or damage the fruit in the fall. The unique combination of climate topography and the location of Lake Ontario minimize this danger.
a. The Okanagan Valley in British Columbia.
- How have grape growers met the challenges of urbanization?
-Reduced amount of land in vineyards
-Lower quality grapes to higher quality grapes
- Why are farmers ‘forced’ to sell their land to developers?
If fruit farmers cannot be profitable they will be forced to sell their land to developers.
- Do you think the government should offer financial support to Niagara Fruit Belt Farmers to ensure that the region is not lost to urbanization?
Yes. Fruit farmers in the Niagara are all losing their land and that is the best place to grow fruit. There are many other places where urbanization can take place, it doesn’t have to take place where our good land is.
- How can Canada continue to industrialize without threatening the availability of arable land?
Urbanization and industrialization can take place where Canada’s good land is not, and where there is a lot of room.
The Automobile and the Environment
- What are the primary components of smog?
-composed of ozone and fine particles
-deadly combination of smoke and fog
- Where does much of the pollution responsible for Ontario’s smog come from?
- What three factors affect the quantity of tailpipe emissions?
-a factor of vehicle efficiency
-the type of fuel
-the kilometres travelled
- List the six main pollutants from automobile exhausts. (Chart: Pollutant and Description)
|Carbon Dioxide||-most significant greenhouse gas
-directly related to fuel combustion
|Carbon Monoxide||-colourless, odourless, tasteless gas
-formed by incomplete fuel combustion
-contributes to global warming and smog
|Nitrogen Oxides||-yellowish gas
-formed when the heat of combustion causes nitrogen to react with oxygen
-gives to creation of smog and acid rain
|Hydrocarbons||-diverse group of carbon compounds
-contributes to forming of smog
|Suspended Particulates||-small particles of solid/liquid matter
-mostly emitted by diesel engines
|Lead||-causes much physical pains and problems
-banned in Canada, still added to gas in other countries
Forestry (on exam not test)
Pg. 447, 453, and 449 in textbook.
Human Systems Review
Birth rate: number of births per 1000 people
Death rate: number of deaths per 1000 people
Immigration rate: number of new Canadians who have immigrated here from another county per 1000 people
Emigration rate: number of people per 1000 population who leave the country to live permanently somewhere else
Natural increase rate: difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country
Net migration rate: difference between people immigrating to a country and people emigrating from the same country
Rule of 70: in demographics, process whereby you divide 70 by the population growth rate to estimate how many years it will take for the country’s population to double
Doubling time: in demographics, how long it would take for a county’s population to double at the country’s current rate of population growth
Dependency load: portion of the population that is not in the work force; total people under fourteen and over sixty-five
Homogeneous population: mostly same mother tongues in the population
Heterogeneous population: all different mother tongues in the population
Push factors: factor, such as unemployment or the lack of freedom of speech, that makes people want to leave their country and move to another one
Pull factors: factor such as freedom of speech or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country
Intervening factors/obstacles: thing stopping or discouraging people from immigrating to a country such as immigration requirements, the distances involved, and the costs of immigration
Survey system: pattern of land division used in an area
Hierarchy of urban services: -small towns=few services -larger town/small city=wider range of services -very large cities=all types of services
Threshold population: number of customers needed to make a business profitable or to allow a service, such as a post office or library to be offered
Multiplier effect: total effect on the economy caused by an expansion or contraction in one part of it. eg/ a new mine employing 300 people may cause 900 other jobs to develop in manufacturing and services.
- Describe the pattern of population distribution in Canada, identifying specific patterns for each region.
Maritimes = the majority of the population lives along the coast (fishing industry)
N.B.-Saint John River Valley
Southern Ontario and Quebec = everyone lives in Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands
-industrial heartland, agricultural
-early transportation advantages
Southern Prairies = population is evenly dispersed because of farming/best farmland
British Columbia = half of the population lives in Vancouver
-pockets in the south and the interior in River Valleys
The North = sparsely populated
-smaller isolated settlements
-resource extraction/Inuit village
- What are the three factors that determine and areas population pattern?
What kinds of resources are found in the area?
What transportation methods were available at the time of settlement?
What role did government policy play in the settlement?
- Be prepared to sketch and identify scattered, concentrated and linear patterns.
Scattered/Dispersed – found in areas that have a strong agricultural base, since people tend to be spread out on the farms in the region.
Concentrated – occur in areas where resources – and the economic opportunities and population that result – are focused in small areas.
Linear – a special kind of concentrated pattern. Such population patterns develop in areas where the most important economic reasons for settlement exist in lines – eg. Along a major highway, or coast of a region.
- Sketch and Describe long lot, concession and the section system of settlement.
Long lots – transportation was by water, taxes were on the river frontage
Concession – concession roads were 2 km apart, land was divide by concession roads and side roads into squares and rectangles, four townships made a county
Section system – a survey system in most of the Prairie Provinces with units of land, 1.6 km by 1.6 km. When settlers first arrived, they were given a quarter-section of land to farm.
- Identify two time periods where there were few immigrants coming to Canada.
World War 1
World War 2
- Identify two time periods when there were many immigrants coming to Canada.
Economic Boom – 1950’s
Extend Prairies – 1910
- How did Canada’s immigration policy change in 1967?
The points test (35/70) was made. No racism.
- Describe the pattern of population in terms of ethnic origin in Canada. Be prepared to give reasons for the ethnic patterns you identify.
Montreal and Ontario –Multicultural
Manitoba –English and German
Saskatchewan –English and German
Alberta –English and Chinese
B.C. – English and Chinese, also a lot of Punjabi
Yukon –English and French
Northwest Territories –French, English and First Nations
Nunavut –First Nations and then English
- Describe the impact that the Baby Boom generation has had, and continues to have on Canadian Society.
First they were dependent, then we needed to support them with jobs until retirement when we need to pay for their pensions and they are dependent. When they die we are going to need a lot of graveyards.
- Identify and explain three trends in the origin of Canada’s immigrants.
United Kingdom and Europe dramatically decrease throughout the years.
Asia dramatically increases throughout the years.
- List Canada’s current top six mother tongues.
English, French, Chinese, Italian, German, Spanish (EFCIGS)
- Which three provinces attract the most immigrants and why?
Ontario, Quebec, B.C.
-three largest cities
-living with their customs
- Be prepared to outline your Immigration Policy. Make sure you include a rationale (reasons) for you policies.
-do not accept seriously ill (unless have family that will take care of them), criminals, public threat
-accept refugees, relatives (cousins, aunts and uncles, grandparents, parents, siblings, nieces and nephews)
AGE – 18-65 years = 20pts (2pts offfor every year outside)
EDUCATION – Gr. 1-12 plus two years of university or college= 20pts (2pts off for each year not taken)
WORK EXPERIENCE – anywhere= 10pts (2pts per year)
RELATIVES – if have relatives=20pts (no relatives equals 0pts)
LANGUAGE – depends on what part of Canada they are immigrating two=20pts for main language, 10pts for second language
PERSONAL ASSIGNMENT – 10pts
WEALTH – poor=10pts –average=15pts –rich= 10pts
Pg. 447, 448 #3, 5, 6e, 7, 8
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using groundwater as a source of fresh water?
-fluctuates less with seasons
-doesn’t need to be treated as much
-needs to be protected
-may have unpleasant taste because of certain minerals dissolved out of the rock
-we cannot use too much groundwater
5. What are four reasons why the demand for water will probably increase in the feature?
Careless use of water
6. e) In what direction does most of Canada’s water flow?
What percentage of the total flow goes in this direction?
Most of Canada’s water flow’s North.
45% of Canada’s water flows north.
7. a) Where does your water come from?
b) Where is it treated?
c) Where does it go after it is used?
My water comes from a well, from the water table (ground water).
It is treated through a filtration system that goes through the pump.
It goes to our septic system.
Pg. 453, 454 #1-4
- Three ways in which water can become contaminated.
Chemical- most dangerous, in lakes and rivers, deadly, drinking water for millions of people
- How is the quality of a lake or river damaged by the presence of large amounts of nutrients (fertilizer)?
It can contaminate groundwater and is very difficult to clean.
- How does farming contribute to water pollution?
Farmers can apply too much pesticides, fertilizer or livestock wastes. These chemicals either seep into the ground and pollute the groundwater or it spreads to a lake, river or stream nearby.
- The Great Lakes have been called a “chemical soup”. Explain the meaning of this expression.
Some industries have been dumping toxic chemicals into our water supplies for years. Over 360 toxic chemicals have been detected in the water. 43 “toxic hot spots” in Canada and the United States has been identified in the Great Lakes where there are particular problems with the build up of poisonous chemicals.