CGC1D Grade 9 Geography Exam


  • Formation of Canada
    • step 1: hot volcanoes were located where the North American Canadian area is located.
    • step 2: erosion eroded away the tops of the volcanoes making them shorter
    • step 3: more erosion literally combined the volcanoes into one mass of rocky land
    • step 4: the mass of land is now a hard smooth plate, the Canadian Shield
    • step 5: the Atlantic plate crashed into the east side of Canada and the area of subduction formed the Appalachian mountains
    • step 6: erosion moved sand and dirt into the pacific ocean and the atlantic ocean
    • step 7: the Pacific plate collided with the west side of Canada, forming the Rocky Mountains
    • step 8: the water between the Rocky Mountains and the Canadian shield drained south forming the Interior Plains
    • step 9: glaciers formed the Great Lakes

Canadian Shield – rich in rocks and very hard
Appalachian – old rock and minerals, worn down smooth
Western Cordilleras – rocky and mountainous fertile land for large trees
Interior Plains – Flat and fertile
Great Lakes – low and south but provides temperate climates

How old is the earth?

  • Ecological footprint in measured in hectares and is the amount of energy used to support one’s lifestyle

Plate Tectonics

  • Plate Movement
  • >< Convergence <> Divergence = Slipping and Sliding

Rock Cycle

  • Area of Subduction: an area of land forced upwards by the collision of another plate


  • Young Rivers have a V shape
  • Old rivers are wider and deeper
  • Oxbow lakes form when a river changes its path
  • Floods bring sediments up to make levees


  • Form when ice is stored for a long time.
  • Alpine glacier formation: when the amount of water coming down is less than the amount of ice being collected
  • Continental glacier formation: when the area of land is relatively cold and less sunlight is hit
  • Snouts form and move dirt around creating new landforms
  • Oak ridges, great lakes formed by glaciers
  • Ice may be left behind and melts to form lakes
  • Erratics formed by scratching in glaciers against other rocks


  • Wind Erosion: Wind brings dirt and erodes land
  • Chemical Erosion: corrosive or liquids remove soluble material

*Most southern point in Canada is Pelee


  • Climate: refers to the long term patters of precipitation and temperature over a certain region

Factors affecting Climate

  • Near Water: water’s temperature is always warmer then the ground, affecting the surrounding land.
  • Latitude: the farther away from the sun, due to the angle of the earth, sunlight is distributed unevenly
  • Ocean Currents: hot and cold air from the currents collide and bring precipitation
    Energy principles apply to when the currents come
  • Winds: Prevailing winds bring hot air upwards and into the northern and southern parts of the earth. Convection cell property
  • Onshore/Offshore: thermal dynamics tell when and how the winds are going to go. Brings moisture and heat on or off land
  • Elevation: the higher you go, the colder it gets. Lack of particles to hold heat
  • Relief: the blockage on the mountain blocks moisture to one side



  • caused by baby boomers
  • leads to many problems such as high taxes, healthcare problems, and lots of demand as they age
  • leads kids today to expect to work hard to pay for those people
  • Suburbs: people live there because of Technology, Sociology, Emotion, Economy, and Environment

Pull factors/Push factors

  • Infrastructure: underlying backbone that tax payers contribute money to expect from their city. Big impact on economy and overall ability for the city to function.
  • Overpopulation: poverty/disease / population pyramid, poor
  • Developed nation: good healthcare / pop pyramid
  • Non-developed nation: / pop pyramid poor


  • Agriculture: refers to the production of food and goods through farming and forestry.
  • Forestry: Over cutting of forests affects many people and the growth of many other resources
  • Non Renewable: Resources that cannot be put back or naturally replaced
  • Renewable: Resources that can be naturally replaced
  • Natural Resources: Natural resources that come naturally from the ground
  • Mining: to get and extract resources like
  • Water: Obtained from the natural water sources, used for drinking, production, sewage etc.
  • Forestry:
    • Clear cutting: (tree)(tree(tree) > (cut)(cut)(cut) < very bad for sustainability
    • Shelter cutting: (tree)(tree)(tree) > (tree)(cut)(cut)(tree) < relatively better for the environment
    • Selective Cutting: (tree)(tree)(tree) > (tree)(cut)(tree)(cut) < very good for sustainability


  • Primary – works directly with materials
  • Secondary – manufacture products
  • Tertiary – services
  • Quaternary – knowledge and ideas to create solutions to problems

East Coast Fishing crisis

  1. Overfishing
  2. Advancement in technology
  3. Natural changes
  4. Destructive methods
  5. Foreign Fishers


  • Open Pit
  • Strip
  • Underground