CGC1D – Grade 9 Academic Geography – Human Geography Test

Human Geography

Definitions:
aboriginal: descendants of Canada’s original inhabitants
birth rate: the number of births in a country per 1000 people in the population
CMA (census metropolitan area): a city with more than 100 000 people
comprehensive treaty: the first treaty in an area
death rate: the number of deaths in a country per 1000 people in the population
demography: the study of population numbers, distribution, trends and issues
dependency load: the proportion of the population that must be financially supported
doubling time: the length of time it would take for a country’s population to double at its current rate of growth
ecumene: inhabited land
emigrate: to leave your country of origin to live permanently in another country
family immigrant: one category of immigrant who is sponsored by a close relative who is already a Canadian resident
first nations: aboriginal groups whose members wish to be treated as a distinct group on shared common culture and history
independent immigrant: a skilled worker or business immigrant, one who would be in a position to contribute to Canada’s economy
Inuit: aboriginal people living in the arctic region of Canada
immigration: to move permanently to a country other than ones native country
landed immigrant: Canadian immigrant with permanent resident status who is not yet a Canadian citizen
land-use: how urban, suburban or rural land can be used
Métis: people of mixed aboriginal and European descent
non-status Indians: people not covered by treaties
population distribution: pattern showing where people live in an area
population density: figure calculated by dividing the population of a region by the regions area
pull factor: something pulling someone into a country
push factor: something that pushes a person out of a country
refugee: someone who comes to Canada because they fear persecution in their home country
resource-based settlement: settlement based on the presence of resources
rural settlement: settlement outside of cities and towns where population density is low and the pattern is dispersed
status Indians: people entitles to certain rights through treaties
specific treaty: treaty based on beliefs that the government didn’t fulfill its requirements
service-based settlement: settlement based on the need for services
urban: towns and cities of more than 1000 people
urbanization: the percentage of country’s total population that lives in urban places
urban growth: the number of people by which the country’s total population grows

Push/Pull Factors:
– can be social, economic, environmental or political
– e.g. recession in Greece, is an economic push factor

Key Waves of Immigration:
– settlement of the west
> giving away free land to people who would use it for farming
> Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta
– refugees of war
> they lost everything and fear for their lives
> WWII
– immigration from the east
> 1981 – present
> Hong Kong, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Pakistan, China

Settlement Pattern:
– dispersed – agricultural, farmland, prairie (MA, SA, AL), farmland in ON and QB
– 90% of Canadians live within 600 km of US border
– factors affecting rural settlement:
> resources – what kind of resources attract people, like forests that provide jobs
> transportation – transportation available at time of settlement, like if water was the main form of transportation, then settlement was along rivers and lakes
> role of government – if they have little or a lot of input, like survey systems that were used to develop roads
– long lots of southern Quebec: long lots vertical to river, so that each farm had access to the water, along St. Lawrence, placed in order vegetables, fruits, house, grains, forest, road
– concession system of southern Ontario were based on settlement for agricultural resources, roads were 2km back and farms were 40-80 hectares
– section system of southern prairies were divided into a grid, blocks that were 9.6 km by 9.6 km, those blocks were divided into 36 sections, then those were divided into 4 quadrants

Urban Places:
– manufacturing cities – goods are mass produced in factories, which gives lots of jobs
– transportation hubs – established and grow because they provide important transportation functions
– tourist cities – develop as a  result of physical or human features that attract people
– government centers – center for government official jobs and provides services for residents
– resource-based communities – established to develop a rich, natural resource
– in 1867, 18% of Canadian lived in cities and towns, now 80% do

Land-Use:
– residential – all the places where people live
– transportation – land needed for transportation of goods and services
– commercial – land for buying or selling goods, like malls
– industrial – developed land committed to industrial use (processing and manufacturing)
– institutional/public buildings – schools, hospitals, places of worship
– open space/recreational land – previously developed land that is now vacant or land left in natural state, like parks
– territories take up 44% of land, but only 0.3% of population
– in 2000, most of population lived within 200km of US border

Other:
– demographic transition – either high stationary, early expanding, late expanding, low stationary or declining
– natural increase rate is birth rate minus death rate
– net migration is immigration minus emigration rates
– population growth is natural increase rate plus the net migration