Overview of the 21st century workplace
- Organizations must adapt to rapidly changing society.
- Economy is global and driven by innovation and technology.
- High performing companies gain extraordinary results from people working for them.
- Interdependent, knowledge based
The Challenges of Working in the New Economy
- People are the ultimate foundations of organizational performance.
- Intellectual capital is the collective brainpower or shared knowledge of a workforce that can be used to create value.
- A knowledge worker adds to the intellectual capital of an organization
- National boundaries of world business have largely disappeared.
- Globalization is the worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product markets, and business competition that characterize the new economy.
- Continuing transformation of the modern workplace through:
- The Internet
- World Wide Web
- Information technology
- Increasing demand for knowledge workers with the skills to fully utilize technology.
- Workforce diversity reflects differences with respect to gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and able-bodiedness.
- A diverse and multicultural workforce both challenges and offers opportunities to employers.
- Code of moral principles.
- Society requires businesses to operate according to high moral standards.
- Emphasis today on restoring the strength of corporate governance
- Career of 21st century won’t be uniformly full-time and limited to a single large employer
- Skills must be portable and always of current value
Organizations in the New Workplace
Critical skills for success in the new workplace …
- Love of technology
- Passion for renewal
- A collection of people working together to achieve a common purpose.
- Organizations provide useful goods and/or services that return value to society and satisfy customer needs.
Organizations are open systems
- Composed of interrelated parts that function together to achieve a common purpose.
- Interact with their environments.
- Transform resource inputs into product outputs (goods and services).
- Environmental feedback tells organization how well it is meeting the needs of customers and society.
Organizations as open systems
- Value is created when an organization’s operations adds value to the original cost of resource inputs.
When value creation occurs:
- Businesses earn a profit.
- Non-profit organizations add wealth to society.
- An overall measure of the quantity and quality of work performance with resource utilization taken into account.
- An output measure of task or goal accomplishment.
- An input measure of the resource costs associated with goal accomplishment.
Productivity and the dimensions of Organizational performance
Workplace changes that provide a context for studying management …
- Belief in human capital
- Demise of “command-and-control”
- Emphasis on teamwork
- Pre-eminence of technology
- Embrace of networking
- New workforce expectations
- Concern for work-life balance
- Focus on speed
Who are Managers and What Do They Do
- A manager is a person in an organization who supports and is responsible for the work of others.
- The people who managers help are the ones whose tasks represent the real work of the organization.
Importance of human resources and managers …
- “Toxic workplaces” treat employees as costs.
- High performing organizations treat people as valuable strategic assets.
- Managers must ensure that people are treated as strategic assets.
Levels of management:
- Top managers — responsible for performance of an organization as a whole or for one of its larger parts.
- Middle managers — in charge of relatively large departments or divisions.
- Project managers __ coordinate complex projects with task deadlines.
- Team leaders or supervisors — in charge of a small work group of non-managerial workers.
Responsibilities of team leaders:
- Plan meetings and work schedules.
- Clarify goals and tasks, and gather ideas for improvement.
- Appraise performance and counsel team members.
- Recommend pay raises and new assignments.
- Recruit, develop, and train team members
- Encourage high performance and teamwork.
- Inform team members about organizational goals and expectations.
- Inform higher levels of work unit needs and accomplishments.
- Coordinate with others teams and support the rest of the organization.
Types of managers
- Line managers are responsible for work activities that directly affect organization’s outputs.
- Staff managers use technical expertise to advise and support the efforts of line workers.
- Functional managers are responsible for a single area of activity.
- General managers are responsible for more complex units that include many functional areas.
- Administrators work in public and non-profit organizations.
Managerial performance and accountability
- Accountability is the requirement of one person to answer to a higher authority for relevant performance results.
- Effective managers fulfill performance accountability by helping others to achieve high performance outcomes and experience satisfaction in their work.
Quality of work life (QWL)
- An indicator of the overall quality of human experiences in the workplace.
- Fair pay
- Safe working conditions
- Opportunities to learn and use new skills
- Room to grow and progress in a career
- Protection of individual rights
- Pride in work itself and in the organization
High performing managers …
- Build working relationships with others.
- Help others develop their skills and performance competencies.
- Foster teamwork.
- Create a work environment that is performance-driven and provides satisfaction for workers.
The organization as an upside-down pyramid
- Each individual is a value-added worker. The organization viewed as an upside-down pyramid
- A manager’s job is to support workers’ efforts.
- The best managers are known for helping and supporting.
- Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the use of resources to accomplish performance goals.
- All managers are responsible for the four functions.
- The functions are carried on continually
Four functions of management.
Functions of management …
- The process of setting objectives and determining what actions should be taken to accomplish them.
- The process of assigning tasks, allocating resources, and arranging the coordinated activities of individuals and groups to implement plans.
- The process of arousing people’s enthusiasm to work hard and direct their efforts to fulfill plans and accomplish objectives.
- The process of measuring work performance, comparing results to objectives, and taking corrective action as needed.
Managerial activities and roles Mintzberg’s 10 managerial roles.
- Involve interactions with persons inside and outside the work unit.
- Involve giving, receiving, and analyzing of information.
- Involve using information to make decisions in order to solve problems or address opportunities.
Characteristics of managerial work …
- Managers work long hours.
- Managers work at an intense pace.
- Managers work at fragmented and varied tasks.
- Managers work with many communication media.
- Managers work largely through interpersonal relationships.
Managerial agendas and networks
- Development of action priorities for one’s job.
- Include goals and plans that span long and short time frames.
- Process of building and maintaining positive relationships with people whose help may be needed to implement one’s work agendas.
Essential Managerial Skills and Competencies
Essential managerial skills
- Skill — the ability to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance.
- Technical skill — the ability to apply a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks.
- Human skill — the ability to work well in cooperation with others.
- Conceptual skill — the ability to think critically and analytically to solve complex problems.
Katz’s essential managerial skills.
Managerial competency …
- A skill-based capability that contributes to high performance in a management job.
Managerial competencies are implicit in:
- Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
- Informational, interpersonal, and decisional roles.
- Agenda setting and networking.
Competencies for managerial success:
- Critical thinking
Understanding Management from Theory to Practice.